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Record Information
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:40 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:06:07 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide
Description5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide is an imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases. -- Pubchem.
  1. 4-Amino-5-Imidazolecarboxamide
  2. 4-Aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide
  3. 4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazole
  4. 4-Carboxamido-5-aminoimidazole
  5. 5-Amino-1H-Imidazole-4-carboxamide
  6. 5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide
  7. 5-Amino-Imidazole-4-carboxamide
  8. 5-Aminoimidazol-4-carboxamide
  9. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide
  10. AIC
  11. AICA
  12. AICAR
  13. Colahepat
Chemical FormulaC4H6N4O
Average Molecular Weight126.1166
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight126.054160834
IUPAC Name4-amino-1H-imidazole-5-carboxamide
Traditional Name4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide
CAS Registry Number360-97-4
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminoimidazoles. These are organic compounds containing an amino group linked to an imidazole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassImidazoles
Direct ParentAminoimidazoles
Alternative Parents
  • Imidolactam
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Aminoimidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-1.10HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility124.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.26ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area97.79 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity32.98 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.37 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-hzpk000000-81d31245e06d3f90edafView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-bzco600000-5d3d51d18ff3e42df0e8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-1z00000000-5ac6303648d30c83dd8cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-mz00000000-891e8af2ee696c82bb67View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-z500000000-d969e00c4e0a26137fb4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-jz00000000-38872de2bfb260a5d96fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-zh00000000-5d37f6e245dbc41ac3e4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-9797d793034ec5f4f97fView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Fibroblasts
  • Muscle
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)SMP00535Not Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144Not Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencySMP00167Not Available
AICA-RibosiduriaSMP00168Not Available
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeSMP00365Not Available
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)SMP00364Not Available
Mercaptopurine PathwaySMP00428Not Available
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeSMP00536Not Available
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203Not Available
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencySMP00537Not Available
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencySMP00210Not Available
Thioguanine PathwaySMP00430Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220Not Available
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513Not Available
Normal Concentrations
UrineDetected and Quantified0.21 (0.05-0.52) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.47 (0.20-0.82) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified5.55 (0.79 - 39.67) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Malignant melanoma or sarcoma
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
  1. Breithaupt H, Dammann A, Aigner K: Pharmacokinetics of dacarbazine (DTIC) and its metabolite 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AIC) following different dose schedules. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1982;9(2):103-9. [7172404 ]
  1. Breithaupt H, Dammann A, Aigner K: Pharmacokinetics of dacarbazine (DTIC) and its metabolite 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AIC) following different dose schedules. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1982;9(2):103-9. [7172404 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023121
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID9298
KEGG Compound IDC04051
BioCyc IDCPD-3762
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAIC
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB03192
Metagene LinkHMDB03192
PubChem Compound9679
ChEBI ID2030
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Jakobsen SN, Hardie DG, Morrice N, Tornqvist HE: 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates IRS-1 on Ser-789 in mouse C2C12 myotubes in response to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside. J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 14;276(50):46912-6. Epub 2001 Oct 11. [11598104 ]
  2. Koistinen HA, Galuska D, Chibalin AV, Yang J, Zierath JR, Holman GD, Wallberg-Henriksson H: 5-amino-imidazole carboxamide riboside increases glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content in skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2003 May;52(5):1066-72. [12716734 ]
  3. Koistinen HA, Chibalin AV, Zierath JR: Aberrant p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in skeletal muscle from Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2003 Oct;46(10):1324-8. Epub 2003 Aug 23. [12937895 ]
  4. Morris GS, Simmonds HA, Davies PM: Use of biological fluids for the rapid diagnosis of potentially lethal inherited disorders of human purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Biomed Chromatogr. 1986 Jun;1(3):109-18. [3506820 ]
  5. Zheng D, MacLean PS, Pohnert SC, Knight JB, Olson AL, Winder WW, Dohm GL: Regulation of muscle GLUT-4 transcription by AMP-activated protein kinase. J Appl Physiol. 2001 Sep;91(3):1073-83. [11509501 ]
  6. Al-Khalili L, Krook A, Zierath JR, Cartee GD: Prior serum- and AICAR-induced AMPK activation in primary human myocytes does not lead to subsequent increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;287(3):E553-7. Epub 2004 May 18. [15149951 ]
  7. Nakano M, Hamada T, Hayashi T, Yonemitsu S, Miyamoto L, Toyoda T, Tanaka S, Masuzaki H, Ebihara K, Ogawa Y, Hosoda K, Inoue G, Yoshimasa Y, Otaka A, Fushiki T, Nakao K: alpha2 Isoform-specific activation of 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribonucleoside at a physiological level activates glucose transport and increases glucose transporter 4 in mouse skeletal muscle. Metabolism. 2006 Mar;55(3):300-8. [16483872 ]
  8. Fiore D, Jackson AJ, Didolkar MS, Dandu VR: Simultaneous determination of dacarbazine, its photolytic degradation product, 2-azahypoxanthine, and the metabolite 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide in plasma and urine by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Jun;27(6):977-9. [4026274 ]
  9. Lower GM Jr, Lanphear SP, Johnson BM, Bryan GT: Aryl and heterocyclic diazo compounds as potential environmental electrophiles. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1977 May;2(5):1095-107. [17015 ]
  10. Wang W, Yang X, Lopez de Silanes I, Carling D, Gorospe M: Increased AMP:ATP ratio and AMP-activated protein kinase activity during cellular senescence linked to reduced HuR function. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jul 18;278(29):27016-23. Epub 2003 May 1. [12730239 ]
  11. Shang J, Lehrman MA: Activation of glycogen phosphorylase with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR). Assessment of glycogen as a precursor of mannosyl residues in glycoconjugates. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 26;279(13):12076-80. Epub 2004 Jan 16. [14729664 ]
  12. Holloszy JO: Exercise-induced increase in muscle insulin sensitivity. J Appl Physiol. 2005 Jul;99(1):338-43. [16036907 ]
  13. Fleming I, Schulz C, Fichtlscherer B, Kemp BE, Fisslthaler B, Busse R: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the insulin-induced activation of the nitric oxide synthase in human platelets. Thromb Haemost. 2003 Nov;90(5):863-71. [14597982 ]


General function:
Involved in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
AICAR + Pyrophosphate → 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in IMP cyclohydrolase activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 steps in purine biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight: