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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:40 UTC
Update Date2017-03-02 21:27:12 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB03193
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTestosterone glucuronide
DescriptionTestosterone glucuronide is a natural human metabolite of testosterone. Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. Testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the ovaries of females although small amounts are secreted by the adrenal glands. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In both males and females, it plays key roles in health and well-being. There is a sex difference in the median values of testosterone glucuronide in the amniotic fluid specimens 15-19 wk gestation between female (median 160 pM, range 64-465 pM) and male (median 817 pM, range 68-3707 pM). This difference, when used in conjunction with amniotic fluid unconjugated testosterone values, increase the predictive accuracy of fetal sexing from 95.4 to 98.9%. In human newborns and young infants, urinary testosterone sulfate is higher than glucuronide. The high sulfokinase activity in fetal and neonatal testes is more likely responsible for this phenomenon than an impaired glucuronizing capacity of the liver. Urinary excretion of testosterone glucuronide increases significantly during puberty. The level of testosterone glucuronide exceeds the level of unconjugated testosterone in human seminal plasma. Urinary testosterone glucuronide excretion is increased in women with virilizing adrenocortical tumors. Concentration of testosterone glucuronide in urine from women with breast tumor in urine samples is not different from patients with benign or malignant breast disease, either before or after the menopause. (PMID: 8327267 , 3560942 , 6246233 , 871373 , 133773 , 947290 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Testosterone 17beta-(beta-D-glucuronide)ChEBI
Testosterone glucuronosideChEBI
Testosterone 17b-(b-D-glucuronide)Generator
Testosterone 17β-(β-D-glucuronide)Generator
(17b)-3-Oxoandrost-4-en-17-yl b-D-glucopyranosiduronic acidHMDB
b-D-3-Oxoandrost-4-en-17b-yl glucopyranosiduronic acidHMDB
b-D-Androstane glucopyranosiduronic acidHMDB
Epitestosterone glucuronideHMDB
Testosterone 17-glucosiduronateHMDB
Testosterone 17-glucuronideHMDB
Testosterone glucopyranuronosideHMDB
Testosterone glucosiduronideHMDB
Testosterone glucuronateHMDB
Testosterone-glucuronideHMDB
(alpha)-Isomer OF testosterone glucuronateMeSH
Chemical FormulaC25H36O8
Average Molecular Weight464.5485
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight464.241018128
IUPAC Name(2S,3S,4S,5R,6R)-6-{[(1S,2R,10R,11S,14S,15S)-2,15-dimethyl-5-oxotetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadec-6-en-14-yl]oxy}-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Nametestosterone glucuronide
CAS Registry Number1180-25-2
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@H](O[C@@H]3O[C@@H]([C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]3O)C(O)=O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C25H36O8/c1-24-9-7-13(26)11-12(24)3-4-14-15-5-6-17(25(15,2)10-8-16(14)24)32-23-20(29)18(27)19(28)21(33-23)22(30)31/h11,14-21,23,27-29H,3-10H2,1-2H3,(H,30,31)/t14-,15-,16-,17-,18-,19-,20+,21-,23+,24-,25-/m0/s1
InChI KeyNIKZPECGCSUSBV-HMAFJQTKSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as steroid glucuronide conjugates. These are sterol lipids containing a glucuronide moiety linked to the steroid skeleton.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
Sub ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Direct ParentSteroid glucuronide conjugates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Steroid-glucuronide-skeleton
  • Androgen-skeleton
  • Androstane-skeleton
  • 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • Delta-4-steroid
  • 1-o-glucuronide
  • O-glucuronide
  • Glucuronic acid or derivatives
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Cyclohexenone
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Monosaccharide
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Pyran
  • Oxane
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Polyol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Acetal
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
  • Waste products
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point155 - 156 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.26 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.83ALOGPS
logP1.91ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.63ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area133.52 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity116.71 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability49.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Semen
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Hypothalamus
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Sperm
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencySMP00356Not Available
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismSMP00068map00150
Aromatase deficiencySMP00565Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableNormal
    details
    SemenDetected and Quantified0.0388 (0.0297 - 0.0506) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0092 (0.00015-0.019) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0059 - 0.013 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    Not Available
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease ReferencesNone
    Associated OMIM IDsNone
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00562
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB023122
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID97270
    KEGG Compound IDC11134
    BioCyc IDNot Available
    BiGG ID2304840
    Wikipedia LinkTestim
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB03193
    Metagene LinkHMDB03193
    METLIN ID2794
    PubChem Compound108192
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID28835
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. van de Kerkhof DH, de Boer D, Thijssen JH, Maes RA: Evaluation of testosterone/epitestosterone ratio influential factors as determined in doping analysis. J Anal Toxicol. 2000 Mar;24(2):102-15. [PubMed:10732948 ]
    2. Perera DM, McGarrigle HH, Lawrence DM, Lucas M: Amniotic fluid testosterone and testosterone glucuronide levels in the determination of foetal sex. J Steroid Biochem. 1987 Feb;26(2):273-7. [PubMed:3560942 ]
    3. Jimenez C, de la Torre R, Segura J, Ventura R: Stability studies of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronides in urine. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2006;20(5):858-64. [PubMed:16470578 ]
    4. de Boer D, de Jong EG, van Rossum JM, Maes RA: Doping control of testosterone and human chorionic gonadotrophin: a case study. Int J Sports Med. 1991 Feb;12(1):46-51. [PubMed:2030059 ]
    5. Purvis K, Saksena SK, Landgren BM, Cekan Z, Diczfalusy E: Steroid conjugates in human seminal plasma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1976 May;5(3):253-61. [PubMed:133773 ]
    6. Raynaud E, Audran M, Pages JC, Brun JF, Fedou C, Chanal JL, Orsetti A: [Study of urinary excretion of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronides in children and adolescents]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1993 Feb;41(2):159-63. [PubMed:8327267 ]
    7. Sayo H, Hosokawa M: [Spin immunoassay of urinary testosterone (author's transl)]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1980 Jan;100(1):56-60. [PubMed:6246233 ]
    8. Jones MK, Ramsay ID, Collins WP: Concentration of testosterone glucuronide in urine from women with breast tumours. Br J Cancer. 1977 Jun;35(6):885-7. [PubMed:871373 ]
    9. Krawczynska H, Zachmann M, Prader A: Urinary testosterone glucuronide and sulphate in newborns and young infants. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1976 Aug;82(4):842-50. [PubMed:947290 ]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme has glucuronidating capacity with steroid substrates such as 5-beta-androstane 3-alpha,17-beta-diol, estradiol, ADT, eugenol and bile acids. Only isoform 1 seems to be active.
    Gene Name:
    UGT2B28
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9BY64
    Molecular weight:
    38742.9
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
    Gene Name:
    UGT2B4
    Uniprot ID:
    P06133
    Molecular weight:
    60512.035
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A4
    Uniprot ID:
    P22310
    Molecular weight:
    60024.535
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
    Gene Name:
    UGT2B10
    Uniprot ID:
    P36537
    Molecular weight:
    60773.485
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
    Gene Name:
    UGT2B7
    Uniprot ID:
    P16662
    Molecular weight:
    60720.15
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xenobiotic substrates, including simple phenolic compounds, 7-hydroxylated coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and certain drugs and their hydroxylated metabolites. It also catalyzes the glucuronidation of endogenous estrogens and androgens.
    Gene Name:
    UGT2B15
    Uniprot ID:
    P54855
    Molecular weight:
    61035.815
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Active on odorants and seems to be involved in olfaction; it could help clear lipophilic odorant molecules from the sensory epithelium.
    Gene Name:
    UGT2A1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y4X1
    Molecular weight:
    60771.605
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P22309
    Molecular weight:
    59590.91
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A9
    Uniprot ID:
    O60656
    Molecular weight:
    59940.495
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A8
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9HAW9
    Molecular weight:
    59741.035
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A3
    Uniprot ID:
    P35503
    Molecular weight:
    60337.835
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A10
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9HAW8
    Molecular weight:
    59809.075
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The major substrates of this isozyme are eugenol > 4-methylumbelliferone > dihydrotestosterone (DHT) > androstane-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol) > testosterone > androsterone (ADT).
    Gene Name:
    UGT2B17
    Uniprot ID:
    O75795
    Molecular weight:
    61094.915
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A6
    Uniprot ID:
    P19224
    Molecular weight:
    60750.215
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A5
    Uniprot ID:
    P35504
    Molecular weight:
    60070.565
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
    Gene Name:
    UGT2B11
    Uniprot ID:
    O75310
    Molecular weight:
    61037.8
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A7
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9HAW7
    Molecular weight:
    59818.315
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
    Specific function:
    Plays an important role in the degradation of dermatan and keratan sulfates.
    Gene Name:
    GUSB
    Uniprot ID:
    P08236
    Molecular weight:
    74731.46
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    UGT2A3
    Uniprot ID:
    Q6UWM9
    Molecular weight:
    60253.94
    Reactions
    Testosterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Testosterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A10
    Uniprot ID:
    Q5DT02
    Molecular weight:
    59809.1
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A8
    Uniprot ID:
    Q5DSZ6
    Molecular weight:
    59741.0
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A7
    Uniprot ID:
    Q5DSZ7
    Molecular weight:
    59818.3