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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:42 UTC
Update Date2016-05-16 17:38:32 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB03217
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGenistein
DescriptionGenistein is one of several known isoflavones. Isoflavones compounds, such as genistein and daidzein, are found in a number of plants, but soybeans and soy products like tofu and textured vegetable protein are the primary food source. Genistein is a natural bioactive compound derived from legumes and has drawn because of its potentially beneficial effects on some human degenerative diseases. It has a weak estrogenic effect and is a well-known non-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor at pharmacological doses. Epidemiological studies show that genistein intake is inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Data suggests a protective role of genistein in cardiovascular events. However, the mechanisms of the genistein action on vascular protective effects are unclear. Past extensive studies exploring its hypolipidemic effect resulted in contradictory data. Genistein also is a relatively poor antioxidant. However, genistein protects against pro-inflammatory factor-induced vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction and inhibits leukocyte-endothelium interaction, thereby modulating vascular inflammation, a major event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Genistein exerts a non-genomic action by targeting on important signaling molecules in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Genistein rapidly activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide in ECs. This genistein effect is novel since it is independent of its known effects, but mediated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) cascade. Genistein directly stimulates the plasma membrane-associated adenylate cyclases, leading to activation of the cAMP signaling pathway. In addition, genistein activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, ligand-activated nuclear receptors important to normal vascular function. Furthermore, genistein reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) by attenuating the expression of ROS-producing enzymes. These findings reveal the roles for genistein in the regulation of vascular function and provide a basis for further investigating its therapeutic potential for inflammatory-related vascular disease. (PMID: 17979711 , Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(24):2581-9.).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
5,7,4'-TrihydroxyisoflavoneKegg
4',5, 7-TrihydroxyisoflavoneHMDB
4',5,7-Trihydroxy-isoflavoneHMDB
4,5,7-Trihydroxy iso-flavoneHMDB
5,7-Dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-oneHMDB
Genistein 85% HPLCHMDB
GenisteolHMDB
GenisterinHMDB
PrunetolHMDB
SophoricolHMDB
Chemical FormulaC15H10O5
Average Molecular Weight270.2369
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight270.05282343
IUPAC Name5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one
Traditional Namegenistein
CAS Registry Number446-72-0
SMILES
OC1=CC=C(C=C1)C1=COC2=CC(O)=CC(O)=C2C1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C15H10O5/c16-9-3-1-8(2-4-9)11-7-20-13-6-10(17)5-12(18)14(13)15(11)19/h1-7,16-18H
InChI KeyInChIKey=TZBJGXHYKVUXJN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as isoflavones. These are polycyclic compounds containing a 2-isoflavene skeleton which bears a ketone group at the C4 carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassIsoflavonoids
Sub ClassIsoflav-2-enes
Direct ParentIsoflavones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydroxyisoflavonoid
  • Isoflavone
  • Chromone
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Benzopyran
  • Resorcinol
  • Pyranone
  • Phenol
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyran
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Anti-oxidant
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point301.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.12 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.04ALOGPS
logP3.08ChemAxon
logS-3.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.55ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.99 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity71.68 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.59 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-00di-0321900000-1dd6fcaf99898bd949dfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-APPI-QQ (API2000) , Positivesplash10-014l-9600000000-04b546320e268d817276View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-APPI-QQ (API2000) , Positivesplash10-00kf-5910000000-7e265d1b4640f882195aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-APPI-QQ (API2000) , Positivesplash10-0v4m-1960000000-7843ec8ae23314f88147View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-APPI-QQ (API2000) , Positivesplash10-00di-0290000000-52ec910b223a3688fbc0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-APPI-QQ (API2000) , Positivesplash10-00di-0190000000-4045f471e10774927fb0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-APPI-QQ (API2000) , Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-b593f863241cb83cbaa8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-APPI-QQ (API2000) , Positivesplash10-00di-0190000000-0cd8d123608bd54f7214View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 5V, Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-9ce354d07dc39313259bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-001i-0910000000-5eb75a138568fa4ac897View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0fr6-2920000000-a32f6ae97952bb96de05View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-0290000000-4592d557e739a114cbfaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITTOF (LCMS-IT-TOF) , Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-14ae481944ad1a1f7ca0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITTOF (LCMS-IT-TOF) , Negativesplash10-014i-0090030000-a3400b0a77da6983528fView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Lymph Node
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Testes
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0065 (0.0057 - 0.0074) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0063 (0.0056 - 0.0071) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.025 (0.000 - 0.050) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00022 +/- 0.00030 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.028 (0.0077-0.064) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.032 +/- 0.007 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.11 +/- 0.017 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 396
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.23 +/- 0.08 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0127 (0.0108-0.0150) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • National Health a...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0228 (0.0174-0.0251) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • National Health a...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected and Quantified0.39 +/- 0.18 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothSoy consumption (ileostomies) details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Ileostomy
  1. Walsh KR, Haak SJ, Bohn T, Tian Q, Schwartz SJ, Failla ML: Isoflavonoid glucosides are deconjugated and absorbed in the small intestine of human subjects with ileostomies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1050-6. [17413104 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01645
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound ID396
Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID396
FoodDB IDFDB011828
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4444448
KEGG Compound IDC06563
BioCyc IDCPD-3141
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGenistein
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB03217
Metagene LinkHMDB03217
METLIN ID3398
PubChem Compound5280961
PDB IDGEN
ChEBI ID28088
References
Synthesis ReferenceBaker, Wilson; Robinson, Robert. Synthetical experiments in the isoflavone group. IV. Synthesis of 2-methylirigenol. Journal of the Chemical Society (1929), Volume Date 1928, 152-61.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Wisniewski AB, Klein SL, Lakshmanan Y, Gearhart JP: Exposure to genistein during gestation and lactation demasculinizes the reproductive system in rats. J Urol. 2003 Apr;169(4):1582-6. [12629420 ]
  2. Ohno S, Nakajima Y, Inoue K, Nakazawa H, Nakajin S: Genistein administration decreases serum corticosterone and testosterone levels in rats. Life Sci. 2003 Dec 26;74(6):733-42. [14654166 ]
  3. Kim S, Shin HJ, Kim SY, Kim JH, Lee YS, Kim DH, Lee MO: Genistein enhances expression of genes involved in fatty acid catabolism through activation of PPARalpha. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004 May 31;220(1-2):51-8. [15196699 ]
  4. de Pascual-Teresa S, Hallund J, Talbot D, Schroot J, Williams CM, Bugel S, Cassidy A: Absorption of isoflavones in humans: effects of food matrix and processing. J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Apr;17(4):257-64. [16109484 ]
  5. Huang X, Chen S, Xu L, Liu Y, Deb DK, Platanias LC, Bergan RC: Genistein inhibits p38 map kinase activation, matrix metalloproteinase type 2, and cell invasion in human prostate epithelial cells. Cancer Res. 2005 Apr 15;65(8):3470-8. [15833883 ]
  6. Ronis MJ, Little JM, Barone GW, Chen G, Radominska-Pandya A, Badger TM: Sulfation of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein in human and rat liver and gastrointestinal tract. J Med Food. 2006 Fall;9(3):348-55. [17004897 ]
  7. Fotsis T, Pepper MS, Aktas E, Breit S, Rasku S, Adlercreutz H, Wahala K, Montesano R, Schweigerer L: Flavonoids, dietary-derived inhibitors of cell proliferation and in vitro angiogenesis. Cancer Res. 1997 Jul 15;57(14):2916-21. [9230201 ]
  8. Casagrande F, Darbon JM: p21CIP1 is dispensable for the G2 arrest caused by genistein in human melanoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 2000 Jul 10;258(1):101-8. [10912792 ]
  9. Li Y, Ahmed F, Ali S, Philip PA, Kucuk O, Sarkar FH: Inactivation of nuclear factor kappaB by soy isoflavone genistein contributes to increased apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents in human cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2005 Aug 1;65(15):6934-42. [16061678 ]
  10. D'Souza N, Skonberg DI, Camire ME, Guthrie KE, Malison J, Lima L: Influence of dietary genistein levels on tissue genistein deposition and on the physical, chemical, and sensory quality of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 May 4;53(9):3631-6. [15853412 ]
  11. Sonee M, Sum T, Wang C, Mukherjee SK: The soy isoflavone, genistein, protects human cortical neuronal cells from oxidative stress. Neurotoxicology. 2004 Sep;25(5):885-91. [15288519 ]
  12. Li M, Zhang Z, Hill DL, Chen X, Wang H, Zhang R: Genistein, a dietary isoflavone, down-regulates the MDM2 oncogene at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels. Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;65(18):8200-8. [16166295 ]
  13. Si H, Liu D: Phytochemical genistein in the regulation of vascular function: new insights. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(24):2581-9. [17979711 ]
  14. Crisafulli A, Altavilla D, Marini H, Bitto A, Cucinotta D, Frisina N, Corrado F, D'Anna R, Squadrito G, Adamo EB, Marini R, Romeo A, Cancellieri F, Buemi M, Squadrito F: Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2005 Mar;12(2):186-92. [15772566 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transcription coactivator activity
Specific function:
Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion. Involved in the coactivation of different nuclear receptors, such as for steroids (PGR, GR and ER), retinoids (RXRs), thyroid hormone (TRs) and prostanoids (PPARs). Also involved in coactivation mediated by STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B and STAT6 transcription factors. Displays histone acetyltransferase activity toward H3 and H4; the relevance of such activity remains however unclear. Plays a central role in creating multisubunit coactivator complexes that act via remodeling of chromatin, and possibly acts by participating in both chromatin remodeling and recruitment of general transcription factors. Required with NCOA2 to control energy balance between white and brown adipose tissues. Required for mediating steroid hormone response. Isoform 2 has a higher thyroid hormone-dependent transactivation activity than isoform 1 and isoform 3.
Gene Name:
NCOA1
Uniprot ID:
Q15788
Molecular weight:
156755.44
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Reduces all-trans-retinal and 9-cis retinal. Can also catalyze the oxidation of all-trans-retinol with NADP as co-factor, but with much lower efficiency. Reduces alkyl phenyl ketones and alpha-dicarbonyl compounds with aromatic rings, such as pyrimidine-4-aldehyde, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, menadione and 4-hexanoylpyridine. Has no activity towards aliphatic aldehydes and ketones (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DHRS4
Uniprot ID:
Q9BTZ2
Molecular weight:
29536.885
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA- binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular weight:
59215.8
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
Involved in calcium induced regulation of ion channel and activation of the map kinase signaling pathway. May represent an important signaling intermediate between neuropeptide activated receptors or neurotransmitters that increase calcium flux and the downstream signals that regulate neuronal activity. Interacts with the SH2 domain of Grb2. May phosphorylate the voltage-gated potassium channel protein Kv1.2. Its activation is highly correlated with the stimulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity. Involved in osmotic stress-dependent SNCA 'Tyr-125' phosphorylation
Gene Name:
PTK2B
Uniprot ID:
Q14289
Molecular weight:
115873.6
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Hu M, Krausz K, Chen J, Ge X, Li J, Gelboin HL, Gonzalez FJ: Identification of CYP1A2 as the main isoform for the phase I hydroxylated metabolism of genistein and a prodrug converting enzyme of methylated isoflavones. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Jul;31(7):924-31. [12814970 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular weight:
66215.4
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular weight:
174383.9
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o- glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular weight:
171589.5
References
  1. Pec MK, Aguirre A, Fernandez JJ, Souto ML, Dorta JF, Villar J: Dehydrothyrsiferol does not modulate multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 resistance: a functional screening system for MRP1 substrates. Int J Mol Med. 2002 Nov;10(5):605-8. [12373300 ]
  2. Nguyen H, Zhang S, Morris ME: Effect of flavonoids on MRP1-mediated transport in Panc-1 cells. J Pharm Sci. 2003 Feb;92(2):250-7. [12532374 ]
  3. Hong J, Lambert JD, Lee SH, Sinko PJ, Yang CS: Involvement of multidrug resistance-associated proteins in regulating cellular levels of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and its methyl metabolites. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Oct 10;310(1):222-7. [14511674 ]
  4. Versantvoort CH, Rhodes T, Twentyman PR: Acceleration of MRP-associated efflux of rhodamine 123 by genistein and related compounds. Br J Cancer. 1996 Dec;74(12):1949-54. [8980395 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Castro AF, Altenberg GA: Inhibition of drug transport by genistein in multidrug-resistant cells expressing P-glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jan 10;53(1):89-93. [8960067 ]
  2. Versantvoort CH, Rhodes T, Twentyman PR: Acceleration of MRP-associated efflux of rhodamine 123 by genistein and related compounds. Br J Cancer. 1996 Dec;74(12):1949-54. [8980395 ]
  3. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [14985103 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain. May be involved in brain-to-blood efflux. Appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of several cancer cell lines. When overexpressed, the transfected cells become resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin and doxorubicin, display diminished intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, and manifest an ATP- dependent increase in the efflux of rhodamine 123
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular weight:
72313.5
References
  1. Imai Y, Tsukahara S, Asada S, Sugimoto Y: Phytoestrogens/flavonoids reverse breast cancer resistance protein/ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance. Cancer Res. 2004 Jun 15;64(12):4346-52. [15205350 ]
  2. Zhang S, Yang X, Morris ME: Flavonoids are inhibitors of breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2)-mediated transport. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 May;65(5):1208-16. [15102949 ]
  3. Perez M, Real R, Mendoza G, Merino G, Prieto JG, Alvarez AI: Milk secretion of nitrofurantoin, as a specific BCRP/ABCG2 substrate, in assaf sheep: modulation by isoflavones. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Oct;32(5):498-502. [19754918 ]