Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-12 19:09:59 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:12:27 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB03345
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAlpha-D-Glucose
DescriptionAlpha-D-Glucose is a primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. a-D-Glucopyranose
  2. a-D-Glucose
  3. a-Dextrose
  4. a-Glucose
  5. alpha-D-Glucopyranose
  6. alpha-D-Glucose
  7. alpha-delta-Glucopyranose
  8. alpha-delta-Glucose
  9. alpha-Dextrose
  10. alpha-Glucose
  11. Hexopyranose
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional IUPAC Nameα-D-glucose
CAS Registry Number492-62-6
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6+/m1/s1
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-DVKNGEFBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassCarbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
ClassMonosaccharides
Sub ClassHexoses
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Heteromonocyclic Compounds
  • Carbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
  • D-galactopyranose(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxane
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentHexoses
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Galactose metabolism
  • Component of Nucleotide sugars metabolism
  • Component of Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Component of Streptomycin biosynthesis
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point146 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility500 mg/mL at 20 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility782 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-3ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count6ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count5ChemAxon
polar surface area110.38ChemAxon
rotatable bond count1ChemAxon
refractivity35.92ChemAxon
polarizability16.09ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Epidermis
  • Intestine
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Fructose and Mannose DegradationSMP00064map00051
Galactose MetabolismSMP00043map00052
GluconeogenesisSMP00128map00010
GlycolysisSMP00040map00010
Nucleotide Sugars MetabolismSMP00010map00520
Retinol MetabolismSMP00074map00830
Starch and Sucrose MetabolismSMP00058map00500
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB011829
KNApSAcK IDC00001122
Chemspider ID71358
KEGG Compound IDC00267
BioCyc IDALPHA-GLUCOSE-16-BISPHOSPHATE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB03345
Metagene LinkHMDB03345
METLIN ID6897
PubChem Compound79025
PDB IDGLC
ChEBI ID17925
References
Synthesis ReferenceSimmons, Blake A.; Volponi, Joanne V.; Ingersoll, David; Walker, Andrew. Conversion of sucrose to b-D-glucose using three-stage immobilized enzyme process. U.S. (2007), 12pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Onyshchenko AM, Korobkova KS, Kovalenko NK, Kasumova SO, Skrypal' IH: [The role of the carbohydrate composition of the glycocalyx in some species of lactobacilli in the manifestation of their adhesive properties] Mikrobiol Z. 1999 Nov-Dec;61(6):22-8. Pubmed: 10733280
  2. Georgiou S, Pasmatzi E, Monastirli A, Sakkis T, Alachioti S, Tsambaos D: Age-related alterations in the carbohydrate residue composition of the cell surface in the unexposed normal human epidermis. Gerontology. 2005 May-Jun;51(3):155-60. Pubmed: 15832040
  3. Skrypal' IH, Tokovenko IP, Malynovs'ka LP: [Carbohydrate receptors for Mycoplasma fermentans adhesion on human epithelial tissues] Mikrobiol Z. 1995 Jul-Aug;57(4):17-22. Pubmed: 8548067
  4. Dalmau SR, Freitas CS: Sugar inhibition of the lectin jacalin: comparison of three assays. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1989;22(5):601-10. Pubmed: 2620170

Enzymes

Gene Name:
AKR1B1
Uniprot ID:
P15121
Reactions
Sorbitol + NADP unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Gene Name:
GCK
Uniprot ID:
P35557
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Alpha-D-Glucose unknown ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
Gene Name:
HK3
Uniprot ID:
P52790
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Alpha-D-Glucose unknown ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
Gene Name:
HK2
Uniprot ID:
P52789
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Alpha-D-Glucose unknown ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
Gene Name:
HK1
Uniprot ID:
P19367
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Alpha-D-Glucose unknown ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
Gene Name:
SI
Uniprot ID:
P14410
Reactions
Sucrose + Water unknown D-Fructose + Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
Isomaltose + Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + D-Glucosedetails
Dextrin + Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + Dextrindetails
Neohancoside D + Water unknown D-Fructose + Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
+ Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + details
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Reactions
beta-Lactose + Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
Gene Name:
AGL
Uniprot ID:
P35573
Reactions
Starch + Water unknown Amylose + Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
Gene Name:
ADPGK
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRR6
Reactions
Alpha-D-Glucose + ADP unknown Glucose 6-phosphate + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
Gene Name:
TREH
Uniprot ID:
O43280
Reactions
Trehalose + Water unknown Beta-D-Glucose + Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
Gene Name:
G6PC
Uniprot ID:
P35575
Reactions
Glucose 6-phosphate + Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + Phosphoric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GLB1
Uniprot ID:
P16278
Reactions
beta-Lactose + Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
Gene Name:
GBA
Uniprot ID:
P04062
Gene Name:
GAA
Uniprot ID:
P10253
Reactions
D-Maltose + Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
Sucrose + Water unknown D-Fructose + Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
Gene Name:
AMY1A
Uniprot ID:
P04745
Gene Name:
GCKR
Uniprot ID:
Q14397
Gene Name:
GBA3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H227
Reactions
D-Glucoside + Water unknown ROH + Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
Gene Name:
MGAM
Uniprot ID:
O43451
Reactions
D-Maltose + Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
Sucrose + Water unknown D-Fructose + Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
Starch + Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + Starchdetails
Dextrin + Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + Dextrindetails
Neohancoside D + Water unknown D-Fructose + Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
+ Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + details
Gene Name:
G6PC2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQR9
Reactions
Glucose 6-phosphate + Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + Phosphoric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GANC
Uniprot ID:
Q8TET4
Reactions
D-Maltose + Water unknown Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
Sucrose + Water unknown D-Fructose + Alpha-D-Glucosedetails
Gene Name:
GALM
Uniprot ID:
Q96C23
Reactions
Alpha-D-Glucose unknown Beta-D-Glucosedetails
Gene Name:
AKR1B10
Uniprot ID:
O60218
Reactions
Sorbitol + NADP unknown Alpha-D-Glucose + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Gene Name:
HKDC1
Uniprot ID:
Q2TB90
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Alpha-D-Glucose unknown ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails