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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-12 20:13:01 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:06:13 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB03402
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePectin
DescriptionPectin is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of plants. Pectins vary in their chain lengths, complexity and the order of each of the monosaccharide units. The characteristic structure of pectin is a linear chain of alpha(1-4)linked D-galacturonic acid that forms the pectin-backbone, a homogalacturonan.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+)-XyloseHMDB
2,3,4,5-TetrahydroxypentanalHMDB
D-LyxoseHMDB
DL-XyloseHMDB
L(+)-XyloseHMDB
L-LyxoseHMDB
LyxoseHMDB
Pectin sugarHMDB
PectinoseHMDB
PentoseHMDB
TrobicinHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H10O7
Average Molecular Weight194.1394
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight194.042652674
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Nameβ-D-galactopyranuronic acid
CAS Registry Number9000-69-5
SMILES
O[C@@H]1O[C@@H]([C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H10O7/c7-1-2(8)4(5(10)11)13-6(12)3(1)9/h1-4,6-9,12H,(H,10,11)/t1-,2+,3+,4-,6+/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=AEMOLEFTQBMNLQ-DTEWXJGMSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassSugar acids and derivatives
Direct ParentGlucuronic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glucuronic acid or derivatives
  • Pyran carboxylic acid
  • Pyran carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Pyran
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hemiacetal
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Pyrimidine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility295.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS0.18ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.21ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area127.45 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.37 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kr-6900000000-a4a0a279e2e16f432677View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9100000000-1c90dbe22f830f93ad0fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9000000000-cefd20d23fb5136d2104View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
Biofluid Locations
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Small Intestine
  • Spleen
  • Testes
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected and Quantified5.26 (4.0-7.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023162
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID390200
KEGG Compound IDC08348
BioCyc IDPECTIN
BiGG ID34162
Wikipedia LinkPectin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB03402
Metagene LinkHMDB03402
METLIN ID6916
PubChem Compound441476
PDB IDGTR
ChEBI ID47954
References
Synthesis ReferenceGu, Qu-Ming; Nickol, Robert G.; Cheng, H. N. Enzyme-catalyzed modification of pectin. Polymer Preprints (American Chemical Society, Division of Polymer Chemistry) (2003), 44(2), 608-609.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Andoh A, Bamba T, Sasaki M: Physiological and anti-inflammatory roles of dietary fiber and butyrate in intestinal functions. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999 Sep-Oct;23(5 Suppl):S70-3. [10483900 ]
  3. Fleming SE, Marthinsen D, Kuhnlein H: Colonic function and fermentation in men consuming high fiber diets. J Nutr. 1983 Dec;113(12):2535-44. [6317826 ]
  4. Lewinska D, Rosinski S, Piatkiewicz W: A new pectin-based material for selective LDL-cholesterol removal. Artif Organs. 1994 Mar;18(3):217-22. [8185488 ]
  5. Kelsay JL, Goering HK, Behall KM, Prather ES: Effect of fiber from fruits and vegetables on metabolic responses of human subjects: fiber intakes, fecal excretions, and apparent digestibilities. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Sep;34(9):1849-52. [6269418 ]
  6. Baig MM, Cerda JJ: Pectin: its interaction with serum lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Jan;34(1):50-3. [7446458 ]
  7. Lairon D, Lafont H, Vigne JL, Nalbone G, Leonardi J, Hauton JC: Effects of dietary fibers and cholestyramine on the activity of pancreatic lipase in vitro. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Oct;42(4):629-38. [2996326 ]
  8. Miettinen TA, Tarpila S: Effect of pectin on serum cholesterol, fecal bile acids and biliary lipids in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic individuals. Clin Chim Acta. 1977 Sep 1;79(2):471-7. [890983 ]
  9. Bosaeus I, Carlsson NG, Sandberg AS, Andersson H: Effect of wheat bran and pectin on bile acid and cholesterol excretion in ileostomy patients. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr. 1986 Nov;40(6):429-40. [3025137 ]
  10. Fan TY, Feng QQ, Jia CR, Fan Q, Li CA, Bai XL: Protective effect of Weikang decoction and partial ingredients on model rat with gastric mucosa ulcer. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Feb 28;11(8):1204-9. [15754406 ]
  11. Levy MC, Edwards-Levy F: Coating alginate beads with cross-linked biopolymers: a novel method based on a transacylation reaction. J Microencapsul. 1996 Mar-Apr;13(2):169-83. [8999122 ]
  12. Veldman FJ, Nair CH, Vorster HH, Vermaak WJ, Jerling JC, Oosthuizen W, Venter CS: Possible mechanisms through which dietary pectin influences fibrin network architecture in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Thromb Res. 1999 Mar 15;93(6):253-64. [10093966 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215