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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-12 23:21:59 UTC
Update Date2014-10-28 23:01:18 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB03538
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCarbonic acid
DescriptionCarbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) is the only inorganic carbon acid, and has the formula H2CO3. It is also a name sometimes given to solutions of carbon dioxide in water, which contain small amounts of H2CO3. The salts of carbonic acids are called bicarbonates (or hydrogencarbonates) and carbonates. (wikipedia).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Acid of air
  2. Aerial acid
  3. Bisodium carbonate
  4. Calcined
  5. Carbonic acid sodium salt
  6. Consal
  7. Crystol carbonate
  8. Dihydrogen carbonate
  9. Disodium carbonate
  10. Mild alkali
  11. Na-X
  12. Oxyper
  13. Sal soda
  14. Salt of soda
  15. Scotch soda
  16. Soda
  17. Soda ash
  18. Sodium carbonate
  19. Sodium carbonate anhydrous
  20. Sodium carbonate hydrated
  21. Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate
  22. Solvay soda
  23. Trona soda ash
  24. Tronalight light soda ash
Chemical FormulaCH2O3
Average Molecular Weight62.0248
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight62.00039393
IUPAC Namecarbonic acid
Traditional Namecarbonic acid
CAS Registry Number463-79-6
SMILES
OC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CH2O3/c2-1(3)4/h(H2,2,3,4)
InChI KeyBVKZGUZCCUSVTD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassOrganic Carbonic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassOrganic Carbonic Acids
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Organic Carbonic Acids and Derivatives
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • carbon oxoacid(ChEBI)
  • chalcocarbonic acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentOrganic Carbonic Acids
Ontology
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility231 g/LALOGPS
logP0.6ALOGPS
logP0.25ChemAxon
logS0.57ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity9.5ChemAxon
Polarizability4.23ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Saliva
Tissue Location
  • Bladder
  • Epidermis
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Nerve Cells
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023191
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID747
KEGG Compound IDC01353
BioCyc IDCARBON-DIOXIDE
BiGG ID1436647
Wikipedia LinkCarbonic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB03538
Metagene LinkHMDB03538
METLIN ID6944
PubChem Compound767
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28976
References
Synthesis ReferenceGovdyak, R. M. Liquid carbonic acid production at gas industry facilities. Ekotekhnologii i Resursosberezhenie (2005), (3), 41-48.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Gross E, Fedotoff O, Pushkin A, Abuladze N, Newman D, Kurtz I: Phosphorylation-induced modulation of pNBC1 function: distinct roles for the amino- and carboxy-termini. J Physiol. 2003 Jun 15;549(Pt 3):673-82. Epub 2003 May 2. Pubmed: 12730338
  2. Kristensen JM, Kristensen M, Juel C: Expression of Na+/HCO3- co-transporter proteins (NBCs) in rat and human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand. 2004 Sep;182(1):69-76. Pubmed: 15329059
  3. Severina IS, Pyatakova NV, Shchegolev AY, Ponomarev GV: YC-1-like potentiation of NO-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by derivatives of protoporphyrin IX. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2006 Mar;71(3):340-4. Pubmed: 16545073
  4. Bomhard EM, Brendler-Schwaab SY, Freyberger A, Herbold BA, Leser KH, Richter M: O-phenylphenol and its sodium and potassium salts: a toxicological assessment. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2002;32(6):551-625. Pubmed: 12487365
  5. Sepai O, Anderson D, Street B, Bird I, Farmer PB, Bailey E: Monitoring of exposure to styrene oxide by GC-MS analysis of phenylhydroxyethyl esters in hemoglobin. Arch Toxicol. 1993;67(1):28-33. Pubmed: 8452476
  6. DiGiovanna JJ, Aoyagi T, Taylor JR, Halprin KM: Inhibition of epidermal adenyl cyclase by lithium carbonate. J Invest Dermatol. 1981 Apr;76(4):259-63. Pubmed: 6259263
  7. Thakur SC, Thakur SS, Chaube SK, Singh SP: Subchronic supplementation of lithium carbonate induces reproductive system toxicity in male rat. Reprod Toxicol. 2003 Nov-Dec;17(6):683-90. Pubmed: 14613820
  8. Faravelli C, Di Bernardo M, Ricca V, Benvenuti P, Bartelli M, Ronchi O: Effects of chronic lithium treatment on the peripheral nervous system. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999 May;60(5):306-10. Pubmed: 10362438
  9. Siegel L, Walker SI, Robin NI: Total hydrolyzable glycerol in amniotic fluid, and its relationship to fetal lung maturity. Clin Chem. 1984 Sep;30(9):1546-8. Pubmed: 6467568
  10. Bartsch I, Zschaler I, Haseloff M, Steinberg P: Establishment of a long-term culture system for rat colon epithelial cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2004 Sep-Oct;40(8-9):278-84. Pubmed: 15723563
  11. Matousek P, Novotny J, Rudajev V, Svoboda P: Prolonged agonist stimulation does not alter the protein composition of membrane domains in spite of dramatic changes induced in a specific signaling cascade. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2005;42(1):21-40. Pubmed: 15673926
  12. Xu W, Yoon SI, Huang P, Wang Y, Chen C, Chong PL, Liu-Chen LY: Localization of the kappa opioid receptor in lipid rafts. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jun;317(3):1295-306. Epub 2006 Feb 27. Pubmed: 16505160
  13. Perrild H, Hegedus L, Arnung K: Sex related goitrogenic effect of lithium carbonate in healthy young subjects. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1984 Jun;106(2):203-8. Pubmed: 6428121
  14. Sack DA, Sack RB, Nair GB, Siddique AK: Cholera. Lancet. 2004 Jan 17;363(9404):223-33. Pubmed: 14738797
  15. Loiselle FB, Jaschke P, Casey JR: Structural and functional characterization of the human NBC3 sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Mol Membr Biol. 2003 Oct-Dec;20(4):307-17. Pubmed: 14578046
  16. Antonijevic N, Terzic T, Jovanovic V, Suvajdzic N, Milosevic R, Basara N, Elezovic I: [Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia: three case reports and a literature review] Med Pregl. 2004 May-Jun;57(5-6):292-7. Pubmed: 15503803
  17. Chang TC: Influence of lithium carbonate on the thyrotropin receptor in vitro. Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi. 1989 Jan;88(1):13-7. Pubmed: 2547015

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
ACC-beta may be involved in the provision of malonyl-CoA or in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, rather than fatty acid biosynthesis. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
Gene Name:
ACACB
Uniprot ID:
O00763
Molecular weight:
276538.575
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetyl-CoA + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Malonyl-CoAdetails
Adenosine triphosphate + Holo-[carboxylase] + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Carboxybiotin-carboxyl-carrier proteindetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate.
Gene Name:
PC
Uniprot ID:
P11498
Molecular weight:
129632.565
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Oxalacetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biogenesis of long-chain fatty acids. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
Gene Name:
ACACA
Uniprot ID:
Q13085
Molecular weight:
269997.01
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetyl-CoA + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Malonyl-CoAdetails
Adenosine triphosphate + Holo-[carboxylase] + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Carboxybiotin-carboxyl-carrier proteindetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in valine and pyrimidine metabolism. Binds fatty acyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ALDH6A1
Uniprot ID:
Q02252
Molecular weight:
57839.31
Reactions
2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid + Coenzyme A + Water + NAD → Propionyl-CoA + Carbonic acid + NADHdetails
General function:
Involved in ligase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PCCB
Uniprot ID:
P05166
Molecular weight:
58215.13
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Propionyl-CoA + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + S-Methylmalonyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PCCA
Uniprot ID:
P05165
Molecular weight:
80058.295
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Propionyl-CoA + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + S-Methylmalonyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in ligase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MCCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q9HCC0
Molecular weight:
61332.65
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + 3-Methylglutaconyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MCCC1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RQ3
Molecular weight:
80472.45
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + 3-Methylglutaconyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular weight:
28870.0
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular weight:
29245.895
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Low activity.
Gene Name:
CA5A
Uniprot ID:
P35218
Molecular weight:
34750.21
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA3
Uniprot ID:
P07451
Molecular weight:
29557.215
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA5B
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2D0
Molecular weight:
36433.43
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA12
Uniprot ID:
O43570
Molecular weight:
39450.615
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular weight:
35032.075
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervical neoplasia.
Gene Name:
CA9
Uniprot ID:
Q16790
Molecular weight:
49697.36
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA13
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1Q1
Molecular weight:
29442.895
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
This protein is a "fusion" protein encoding four enzymatic activities of the pyrimidine pathway (GATase, CPSase, ATCase and DHOase).
Gene Name:
CAD
Uniprot ID:
P27708
Molecular weight:
242981.73
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Carbonic acid + Water → ADP + Phosphoric acid + L-Glutamic acid + Carbamoyl phosphatedetails
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA14
Uniprot ID:
Q9ULX7
Molecular weight:
37667.37
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA7
Uniprot ID:
P43166
Molecular weight:
23451.435
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Its role in saliva is unknown.
Gene Name:
CA6
Uniprot ID:
P23280
Molecular weight:
35366.615
Reactions
Carbonic acid → CO(2) + Waterdetails
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Does not have a carbonic anhydrase catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
CA8
Uniprot ID:
P35219
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Carbonic acid → Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails