Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Cadmium (HMDB03638)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2006-08-12 20:21:40 -0600
Update Date 2013-05-29 13:38:43 -0600
HMDB ID HMDB03638
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Cadmium
Description Cadmium (group IIB of the periodic table of elements) is a heavy metal. It is not a naturally occurring metal in biological systems. Cadmium poses severe risks to human health. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Up to this day, it has not been shown that cadmium has any physiological function within the human body. Interest has therefore risen in its biohazardous potential. As first described by Friedrich Stromeyer (Gottingen, Germany) in 1817, cadmium intoxication can lead to kidney, bone, and pulmonary damage. Cadmium is widely used in industrial processes, e.g as an anticorrosive agent, as a stabilizer in PVC products, as a colour pigment, a neutron absorber in nuclear power plants, and in the fabrication of nickel cadmium batteries. Phosphate fertilizers also show a big cadmium load. Although some cadmium containing products can be recycled, a large share of the general cadmium pollution is caused by dumping and incinerating cadmium polluted waste. In Scandinavia for example, cadmium concentration in agricultural soil increases by 0.2 percent per year. Total global emission of cadmium amounts to 7000 t/year. The maximum permissible value for workers according to German law is 15 ug/l. For comparison: Non-smokers show an average cadmium blood concentration of 0.5 ug/l. Basically there are three possible ways of cadmium resorption: Gastrointestinal, pulmonary and dermal. The uptake through the human gastrointestinal is approximately 5 percent of an ingested amount of cadmium, depending on the exact dose and nutritional composition. The major source of inhalative cadmium intoxication is cigarette smoke. The human lung resorbes 40 to 60 percent of the cadmium in tobacco smoke. Little research has been done on dermal absorption of cadmium. Two mechanisms facilitate cadmium absorption by the skin: binding of a free cadmium ion to sulfhydryl radicals of cysteine in epidermal keratins, or an induction and complexing with metallothionein. Once taken up by the blood, the majority of cadmium is transported bound to proteins, such as Albumin and Metallothionein. The first organ reached after cadmium uptake into the GI-blood is the liver. Here cadmium induces the production of Metallothionein. After consecutive hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis, Cd-Metallothionein complexes are washed into sinusoidal blood. From here, parts of the absorbed cadmium enter the entero-hepatical cycle via secretion into the biliary tract in form of Cadmium-glutathione conjugates. Enzymatically degraded to cadmium-cysteine complexes in the biliary tree, cadmium reenters the small intestines. The main organ for long-term cadmium accumulation is the kidney. Here the half life period for cadmium is approximately 10 years. A life long intake can therefore lead to a cadmium accumulation in the kidney, consequently resulting in tubulus cell necrosis. The blood concentration of cadmium serves as a reliable indicator for a recent exposition, while the urinary concentration reflects past exposure, body burden and renal accumulation. Excretion of Cadmium takes place via faeces and urine. (PMID: 16961932 Link_out).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. Cadmium atom
  2. Cadmium elemental
  3. Cadmium metallicum
  4. Cd
  5. Colloidal cadmium
  6. Kadmium
Chemical Formula Cd
Average Molecular Weight 112.411
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 113.903358121
IUPAC Name cadmium(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Name cadmium(2+)
CAS Registry Number 7440-43-9
SMILES [Cd++]
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/Cd/q+2
InChI Key WLZRMCYVCSSEQC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • cadmium cation(ChEBI)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct Parent Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Toxin/Pollutant
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
Application Not Available
Cellular locations Not Available
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 321 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility Not Available Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP -0.07 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 0 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 0 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 0 ChemAxon
Polarizability 1.78 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 2 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 2 ChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations Not Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location Not Available
Pathways Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.00088 +/- 0.00044 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.0049 (0.0018-0.011) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.019 (0.004-0.068) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.00202(0.00088-0.00465) uM Not Available Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.00746(0.00553-0.00992) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.015 +/- 0.007 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.0004 (0.0002-0.0010) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.0012 +/- 0.0013 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.00035(0.00024-0.00051) umol/mmol creatinine Not Available Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.00060 (0.00035-0.00100) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.0097 +/- 0.0049 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Multiple sclerosis
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.00061 +/- 0.00023 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Parkinson's disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 4.4 +/- 2.5 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Macular degeneration
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.00120 +/- 0.00053 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Macular degeneration
  • Erie JC, Good JA, Butz JA, Hodge DO, Pulido JS: Urinary cadmium and age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Sep;144(3):414-418. Epub 2007 Jul 13. Pubmed: 17631267 Link_out
      Alzheimer's disease
      • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393 Link_out
          Multiple sclerosis
          • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395 Link_out
              Parkinson's disease
              • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392 Link_out
                  Associated OMIM IDs
                  DrugBank ID Not Available
                  DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                  Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                  Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                  FoodDB ID FDB003766
                  KNApSAcK ID Not Available
                  Chemspider ID 28935 Link_out
                  KEGG Compound ID C01413 Link_out
                  BioCyc ID CD%2b2 Link_out
                  BiGG ID Not Available
                  Wikipedia Link Cadmium Link_out
                  NuGOwiki Link HMDB03638 Link_out
                  Metagene Link HMDB03638 Link_out
                  METLIN ID Not Available
                  PubChem Compound 31193 Link_out
                  PDB ID CD Link_out
                  ChEBI ID 48775 Link_out
                  References
                  Synthesis Reference Not Available
                  Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                  General References
                  1. Godt J, Scheidig F, Grosse-Siestrup C, Esche V, Brandenburg P, Reich A, Groneberg DA: The toxicity of cadmium and resulting hazards for human health. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2006 Sep 10;1:22. Pubmed: 16961932 Link_out

                  Enzymes
                  Name: Beta-Ala-His dipeptidase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: CNDP1
                  Uniprot ID: Q96KN2 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Bis(5'-adenosyl)-triphosphatase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: FHIT
                  Uniprot ID: P49789 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Chondroitin sulfate synthase 3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: CHSY3
                  Uniprot ID: Q70JA7 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Chondroitin sulfate synthase 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: CHSY1
                  Uniprot ID: Q86X52 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Metallothionein-1E
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: MT1E
                  Uniprot ID: P04732 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Metallothionein-1F
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: MT1F
                  Uniprot ID: P04733 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Metallothionein-1G
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: MT1G
                  Uniprot ID: P13640 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Metallothionein-1H
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: MT1H
                  Uniprot ID: P80294 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Metallothionein-1X
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: MT1X
                  Uniprot ID: P80297 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Metallothionein-1L
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: MT1L
                  Uniprot ID: Q93083 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Metallothionein-1M
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: MT1M
                  Uniprot ID: Q8N339 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Metallothionein-1A
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: MT1A
                  Uniprot ID: P04731 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Metallothionein-1B
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: MT1B
                  Uniprot ID: P07438 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA