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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-13 10:14:47 UTC
Update Date2016-08-17 21:44:58 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB04067
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB06340
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLeucodopachrome
DescriptionLeucodopachrome is an indolic intermediate in the melanogenesis pathway, the non-enzymatically product of dopaquinone through cyclization in a reaction whose operation is determined by a pH greater than 4 (melanin synthesis in human pigment cell lysates is maximal at pH 6.8). Leucodopachrome participates in redox exchange with dopaquinone to give the eumelanin precursor dopachrome plus dopa. Dopaquinone (the quinone intermediate resulting from tyrosinase-mediated oxidation of tyrosine, monophenol dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) could be a toxic metabolite in melanin biosynthesis. (PMID: 6807981 , 1445949 , 413870 , 11461115 , 11171088 , 12755639 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(S)-2-Carboxy-5,6-dihydroxyindolineChEBI
(S)-5,6-Dihydroxyindoline-2-carboxylic acidChEBI
cyclo-DopaChEBI
CyclodopaChEBI
L-2-Carboxy-2,3-dihydro-5,6-dihydroxyindoleChEBI
LeukodopachromeChEBI
(2S)-5,6-Dihydroxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylateGenerator
(S)-5,6-Dihydroxyindoline-2-carboxylateGenerator
2,3-dihydro-5,6-Dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylateHMDB
2-Carboxy-2,3-dihydro-5,6-dihydroxyindoleHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight195.1721
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight195.053157781
IUPAC Name(2S)-5,6-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Namecyclodopa
CAS Registry Number18766-67-1
SMILES
OC(=O)[C@@H]1CC2=CC(O)=C(O)C=C2N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H9NO4/c11-7-2-4-1-6(9(13)14)10-5(4)3-8(7)12/h2-3,6,10-12H,1H2,(H,13,14)/t6-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=JDWYRSDDJVCWPB-LURJTMIESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indolecarboxylic acids. These are compounds containing a carboxylic acid group linked to an indole.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassIndolecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentIndolecarboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Indolecarboxylic acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Dihydroindole
  • 1,2-diphenol
  • Aralkylamine
  • Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Benzenoid
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-0.037Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.4 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.1ALOGPS
logP-0.95ChemAxon
logS-1.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.16ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area89.79 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity49.35 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.45 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Feces
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
AlkaptonuriaSMP00169Not Available
Disulfiram PathwaySMP00429Not Available
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencySMP00498Not Available
HawkinsinuriaSMP00190Not Available
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)SMP00533Not Available
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006map00350
Tyrosinemia Type ISMP00218Not Available
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornSMP00494Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothCCD details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothICD details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023297
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID141655
KEGG Compound IDC05604
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID46110
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB04067
Metagene LinkHMDB04067
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound161255
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID60872
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Canovas FG, Garcia-Carmona F, Sanchez JV, Pastor JL, Teruel JA: The role of pH in the melanin biosynthesis pathway. J Biol Chem. 1982 Aug 10;257(15):8738-44. [6807981 ]
  2. Rodriguez-Lopez JN, Banon-Arnao M, Martinez-Ortiz F, Tudela J, Acosta M, Varon R, Garcia-Canovas F: Catalytic oxidation of 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine by tyrosinase: identification and evolution of intermediates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 Nov 20;1160(2):221-8. [1445949 ]
  3. Graham DG, Tiffany SM, Vogel FS: The toxicity of melanin precursors. J Invest Dermatol. 1978 Feb;70(2):113-6. [413870 ]
  4. Ancans J, Tobin DJ, Hoogduijn MJ, Smit NP, Wakamatsu K, Thody AJ: Melanosomal pH controls rate of melanogenesis, eumelanin/phaeomelanin ratio and melanosome maturation in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 2001 Aug 1;268(1):26-35. [11461115 ]
  5. Olivares C, Jimenez-Cervantes C, Lozano JA, Solano F, Garcia-Borron JC: The 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) oxidase activity of human tyrosinase. Biochem J. 2001 Feb 15;354(Pt 1):131-9. [11171088 ]
  6. Land EJ, Ramsden CA, Riley PA: Tyrosinase autoactivation and the chemistry of ortho-quinone amines. Acc Chem Res. 2003 May;36(5):300-8. [12755639 ]