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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-13 12:51:40 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:06:35 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB04138
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGold
DescriptionGold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from the Latin aurum) and atomic number 79. It is a highly sought-after precious metal which, for many centuries, has been used as money, a store of value and in jewelery. The metal occurs as nuggets or grains in rocks, underground "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the coinage metals. Gold is dense, soft, shiny and the most malleable and ductile of the known metals. Pure gold has an attractive bright yellow color. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. There is increasing documentation of allergic contact dermatitis and other effects from gold jewelry, gold dental restorations, and gold implants. These effects were especially pronounced among females wearing body-piercing gold objects. One estimate of the prevalence of gold allergy worldwide is 13%, as judged by patch tests with monovalent organogold salts. Eczema of the head and neck was the most common response of individuals hypersensitive to gold, and sensitivity can last for at least several years. Ingestion of beverages containing flake gold can result in allergic-type reactions similar to those seen in gold-allergic individuals exposed to gold through dermal contact and other routes. Studies with small laboratory mammals and injected doses of colloidal gold showed increased body temperatures, accumulations in reticular cells, and dose enhancement in tumor therapy; gold implants were associated with tissue injuries. It is proposed that Au degrees toxicity to mammals is associated, in part, with formation of the more reactive Au+ and Au3+ species. Contact allergy to gold as demonstrated by patch testing is very common among patients with eczematous disease and seems to be even more frequent among patients with complaints from the oral cavity. There is a positive correlation between gold allergy and the presence of dental gold. Gold allergy is often found in patients with non-specific stomatitides as well as in those with lichenoid reactions or with only subjective symptoms from the oral cavity. The therapeutic effect of substituting other dental materials for gold alloys is conspicuous in casuistic reports but less impressive in larger patient materials. The amount of dental gold is correlated qualitatively and quantitatively to the blood level of gold and the effects if any of circulating blood gold are unknown. There is clearly a need for prospective studies in the field and gold sodium thiosulfate is considered an important item in the dental series for patch testing. (PMID: 15258315 , 12423401 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Au(+)ChEBI
GOLD ionChEBI
Gold, ion(1+)ChEBI
Au gold powderHMDB
AurideHMDB
AurumHMDB
Aurum metallicumHMDB
Burnish goldHMDB
Gold colloidalHMDB
Gold elementalHMDB
Gold flakeHMDB
Gold leafHMDB
Gold(0)HMDB
Magnesium gold purpleHMDB
MyochrysineHMDB
Shell goldHMDB
Chemical FormulaAu
Average Molecular Weight196.9666
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight196.966551609
IUPAC Namegold(1+) ion
Traditional Namegold(1+) ion
CAS Registry Number7440-57-5
SMILES
[Au+]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Au/q+1
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZBKIUFWVEIBQRT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous transition metal
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point1064 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.03ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00024 +/- 0.00026 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.60 +/- 0.063 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.002 (0.0004 - 0.006) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0000037 +/- 0.0000084 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB016246
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID102884
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB04138
Metagene LinkHMDB04138
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound114945
PDB IDAU
ChEBI ID49482
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Eisler R: Mammalian sensitivity to elemental gold (Au degrees). Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Jul;100(1):1-18. [15258315 ]
  2. Moller H: Dental gold alloys and contact allergy. Contact Dermatitis. 2002 Aug;47(2):63-6. [12423401 ]