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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-13 14:02:40 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:06:37 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB04198
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameReduced Vitamin K (phylloquinone)
DescriptionVitamin K is a family of fat-soluble compounds with a common chemical structure based on 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone. Phylloquinone is often called vitamin K1, phytomenadione or phytonadione. Sometimes a distinction is made with phylloquinone considered natural and phytonadione considered synthetic. A stereoisomer of phylloquinone is called vitamin k1 (note the difference in capitalization). (Wikipedia). Phylloquinone is present in food of plant origin, such as green, leafy vegetables and certain plant oils, and is the predominant form in the diet. Bacterial and other forms of vitamin K, referred to as the menaquinones, differ in structure from phylloquinone in their 3-substituted lipophilic side chain. Menaquinone-4 (MK-4), which is alkylated from menadione, is present in animal feeds or is the product of tissue-specific conversion directly from dietary phylloquinone. Vitamin K is a cofactor specific to the formation of gamma-carboxyglutamyl (Gla) residues in certain proteins, including prothrombin necessary for normal hemostatic function. The naturally occurring forms of vitamin K are quinones (i.e. phylloquinone and menaquinones) so vitamin K is reduced to the vitamin K hydroquinone prior to catalyzing the gamma-carboxylation reaction. The active site for the carboxylation reaction is on the napthoquinone ring, which is identical for all forms of vitamin K, including phylloquinone and MK-4. (PMID 16857056 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Methyl-3-(3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecenyl)-1,4-naphthalenedioneChEBI
2-Methyl-3-[(2E)-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecenyl]naphthoquinoneChEBI
2-Methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthochinonChEBI
2-Methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinoneChEBI
3-PhytylmenadioneChEBI
alpha-PhylloquinoneChEBI
FitomenadionaChEBI
PhyllochinonChEBI
PhyllochinonumChEBI
PhytomenadioneChEBI
PhytomenadionumChEBI
PhytonadioneChEBI
PhytonadionumChEBI
PhytylmenadioneChEBI
trans-PhylloquinoneChEBI
Vitamin K1ChEBI
Vitamin K hydroquinone (phylloquinone)HMDB
Chemical FormulaC31H46O2
Average Molecular Weight450.6957
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight450.349780716
IUPAC Name2-methyl-3-[(2E,7R,11R)-3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-yl]-1,4-dihydronaphthalene-1,4-dione
Traditional Namevitamin K
CAS Registry Number81382-12-9
SMILES
CC(C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC\C(C)=C\CC1=C(C)C(=O)C2=C(C=CC=C2)C1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C31H46O2/c1-22(2)12-9-13-23(3)14-10-15-24(4)16-11-17-25(5)20-21-27-26(6)30(32)28-18-7-8-19-29(28)31(27)33/h7-8,18-20,22-24H,9-17,21H2,1-6H3/b25-20+/t23-,24-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=MBWXNTAXLNYFJB-NKFFZRIASA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as vitamin k compounds. These are quinone lipids containing a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure, and vary in the aliphatic side chain attached at the 3-position.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassQuinone and hydroquinone lipids
Direct ParentVitamin K compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Diterpenoid
  • Naphthoquinone
  • Naphthalene
  • Aryl ketone
  • Quinone
  • Benzenoid
  • Ketone
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.92e-05 mg/mLALOGPS
logP8.48ALOGPS
logP9.7ChemAxon
logS-6.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity142.96 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability55.92 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-002r-2930000000-2b32596edebbe7e02cf7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0002-1290000000-fa752c2db990f115c3c6View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0002-8269080000-4bdc9b3a41d7d08b7265View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0002-7379080000-ba90762b738ee84b3151View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-014i-6749020000-c4e58ef0e538e224dad4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0g4i-3149020000-ad93d4a26002eefa74ceView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-00xr-5397040000-221a2f93d46494325e33View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Acenocoumarol PathwaySMP00269Not Available
Alteplase PathwaySMP00280Not Available
Aminocaproic Acid PathwaySMP00286Not Available
Anistreplase PathwaySMP00281Not Available
Aprotinin PathwaySMP00288Not Available
Ardeparin PathwaySMP00275Not Available
Argatroban PathwaySMP00276Not Available
Bivalirudin PathwaySMP00277Not Available
Coagulation SMP00586Not Available
Dicoumarol Action PathwaySMP00656Not Available
Dicumarol PathwaySMP00270Not Available
Enoxaparin PathwaySMP00272Not Available
Fondaparinux PathwaySMP00273Not Available
Heparin PathwaySMP00274Not Available
Lepirudin PathwaySMP00278Not Available
Phenindione Action PathwaySMP00655Not Available
Phenprocoumon PathwaySMP00271Not Available
Reteplase PathwaySMP00285Not Available
Streptokinase PathwaySMP00282Not Available
Tenecteplase PathwaySMP00283Not Available
Tranexamic Acid PathwaySMP00287Not Available
Urokinase PathwaySMP00284Not Available
Vitamin K MetabolismSMP00464Not Available
Warfarin PathwaySMP00268Not Available
Ximelagatran PathwaySMP00279Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023333
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4444392
KEGG Compound IDC05850
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB04198
Metagene LinkHMDB04198
METLIN ID7027
PubChem Compound5280846
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceMasaki, Yukio; Hashimoto, Kinji; Kaji, Kenji. Synthetic studies on isoprenoidquinones. II. Syntheses of ubiquinone-10, phylloquinone, and menaquinone-4 by a chain-extending method utilizing terminally functionalized isoprenoidhydroquinones. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (1984), 32(10), 3959-67.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Tovar A, Ameho CK, Blumberg JB, Peterson JW, Smith D, Booth SL: Extrahepatic tissue concentrations of vitamin K are lower in rats fed a high vitamin E diet. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006 Jul 20;3:29. [16857056 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinons involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin synthesis.
Gene Name:
NQO1
Uniprot ID:
P15559
Molecular weight:
30867.405
General function:
Involved in gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Mediates the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of glutamate residues to calcium-binding gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues with the concomitant conversion of the reduced hydroquinone form of vitamin K to vitamin K epoxide.
Gene Name:
GGCX
Uniprot ID:
P38435
Molecular weight:
87560.065
Reactions
[Peptidyl]-4-carboxyglutamate + Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide + Water → [peptidyl]-glutamate + CO(2) + Oxygen + Reduced Vitamin K (phylloquinone)details
General function:
Involved in vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-sensi
Specific function:
Involved in vitamin K metabolism. Catalytic subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex which reduces inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Gene Name:
VKORC1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BQB6
Molecular weight:
18234.3
Reactions
Reduced Vitamin K (phylloquinone) + Oxidized dithiothreitol → Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide + 1,4-Dithiothreitoldetails