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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-14 00:24:46 UTC
Update Date2014-08-05 20:27:30 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB04684
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name11,12,15-THETA
Description11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12,15-THETA) is a metabolite of the 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) pathway of arachidonic acid (AA). 11,12,15-THETA is an endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Acetylcholine stimulates AA release from membrane phospholipids of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). AA is released from phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by phospholipase A2 (PLA2), or from phosphatidylinositol (PI) by phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. The diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase can convert DAG into 2-arachidonoylglycerol from which free AA can be released by monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase or fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH). 11,12,15-THETA mediates the acetylcholine-induced vaso-relaxation, via activation of the K+ channels to hyperpolarize the smooth muscle membrane and induce relaxation. (PMID: 12907422 , 16024567 , 15388505 , 14622984 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 11,12,15-TriHETRE
  2. 11,12,15-Trihydroxyicosatrienoate
  3. 11,12,15-Trihydroxyicosatrienoic acid
  4. 11,12,15S-Trihydroxy-5Z,8Z,13E-eicosatrienoate
  5. 11,12,15S-Trihydroxy-5Z,8Z,13E-eicosatrienoic acid
Chemical FormulaC20H34O5
Average Molecular Weight354.481
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight354.240624198
IUPAC Name(5Z,8Z,13E,15S)-11,12,15-trihydroxyicosa-5,8,13-trienoic acid
Traditional Name(5Z,8Z,13E,15S)-11,12,15-trihydroxyicosa-5,8,13-trienoic acid
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCC[C@H](O)\C=C\C(O)C(O)C\C=C/C\C=C/CCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C20H34O5/c1-2-3-9-12-17(21)15-16-19(23)18(22)13-10-7-5-4-6-8-11-14-20(24)25/h4,6-7,10,15-19,21-23H,2-3,5,8-9,11-14H2,1H3,(H,24,25)/b6-4-,10-7-,16-15+/t17-,18?,19?/m0/s1
InChI KeyPRMWQIVYOYCJQC-YZSNCDGGSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassEicosanoids
Sub ClassHydroxyeicosatrienoic Acids
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Hydroxy Fatty Acids
  • Organic Compounds
  • Straight Chain Fatty Acids
  • Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Acyclic Alkene
  • Allyl Alcohol
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentHydroxyeicosatrienoic Acids
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.052 g/LALOGPS
logP4.46ALOGPS
logP3.41ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area97.99ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count15ChemAxon
Refractivity103.23ChemAxon
Polarizability40.45ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismSMP00075map00590
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.0001 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.0001 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023403
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID10128338
KEGG Compound IDC14782
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB04684
Metagene LinkHMDB04684
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound11954043
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Campbell WB, Spitzbarth N, Gauthier KM, Pfister SL: 11,12,15-Trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid mediates ACh-induced relaxations in rabbit aorta. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Dec;285(6):H2648-56. Epub 2003 Aug 7. Pubmed: 12907422
  2. Tang X, Edwards EM, Holmes BB, Falck JR, Campbell WB: Role of phospholipase C and diacylglyceride lipase pathway in arachidonic acid release and acetylcholine-induced vascular relaxation in rabbit aorta. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Jan;290(1):H37-45. Epub 2005 Jul 15. Pubmed: 16024567
  3. Zhang DX, Gauthier KM, Chawengsub Y, Holmes BB, Campbell WB: Cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-dependent relaxation to arachidonic acid in rabbit small mesenteric arteries. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Jan;288(1):H302-9. Epub 2004 Sep 23. Pubmed: 15388505
  4. Pfister SL, Spitzbarth N, Zeldin DC, Lafite P, Mansuy D, Campbell WB: Rabbit aorta converts 15-HPETE to trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids: potential role of cytochrome P450. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Dec 1;420(1):142-52. Pubmed: 14622984

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name:
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID:
Q9HB55
Molecular weight:
57756.285
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Participates in the metabolism of an as-yet-unknown biologically active molecule that is a participant in eye development.
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular weight:
60845.33
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular weight:
55710.075
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
May be involved in the metabolism of various pneumotoxicants including naphthalene. Is able to dealkylate ethoxycoumarin, propoxycoumarin, and pentoxyresorufin but possesses no activity toward ethoxyresorufin and only trace dearylation activity toward benzyloxyresorufin. Bioactivates 3-methylindole (3MI) by dehydrogenation to the putative electrophile 3-methylene-indolenine.
Gene Name:
CYP2F1
Uniprot ID:
P24903
Molecular weight:
55500.64
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4X1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N118
Molecular weight:
58874.62
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Possesses phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID:
Q16696
Molecular weight:
56687.095
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP4B1
Uniprot ID:
P13584
Molecular weight:
58990.64
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4Z1
Uniprot ID:
Q86W10
Molecular weight:
59085.45
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular weight:
57882.48
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has a potential importance for extrahepatic xenobiotic metabolism.
Gene Name:
CYP2S1
Uniprot ID:
Q96SQ9
Molecular weight:
55816.205
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly via a NADPH-dependent olefin epoxidation to all four regioisomeric cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. One of the predominant enzymes responsible for the epoxidation of endogenous cardiac arachidonic acid pools.
Gene Name:
CYP2J2
Uniprot ID:
P51589
Molecular weight:
57610.165
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2A7
Uniprot ID:
P20853
Molecular weight:
56424.735
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
A0N0X8
Molecular weight:
58164.8
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
Q6NWU0
Molecular weight:
55729.9