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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:41:17 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB04952
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCeramide (d18:1/22:0)
DescriptionCeramides (N-acylsphingosine) are one of the hydrolysis byproducts of sphingomyelin by the enzyme sphingomyelinase (sphingomyelin phosphorylcholine phosphohydrolase E.C.3.1.4.12) which has been identified in the subcellular fractions of human epidermis (PMID 25935 ) and many other tissues. They can also be synthesized from serine and palmitate in a de novo pathway and are regarded as important cellular signals for inducing apoptosis (PMID 14998372 ). Is key in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids and gangliosides.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (2S,3R,4E)-2-acylamino-1,3-octadec-4-enediol
  2. (2S,3R,4E)-2-acylaminooctadec-4-ene-1,3-diol
  3. Cer
  4. Ceramide
  5. N-Acylsphingosine
  6. N-[(1S,2R,3E)-2-Hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-3-heptadecenyl]-octadecanamide
Chemical FormulaC40H79NO3
Average Molecular Weight622.0602
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight621.605995399
IUPAC NameN-[(2S,3R,4E)-1,3-dihydroxyoctadec-4-en-2-yl]docosanamide
Traditional IUPAC NameC22 cer
CAS Registry Number104404-17-3
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)N[C@@H](CO)[C@H](O)\C=C\CCCCCCCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C40H79NO3/c1-3-5-7-9-11-13-15-17-18-19-20-21-22-24-26-28-30-32-34-36-40(44)41-38(37-42)39(43)35-33-31-29-27-25-23-16-14-12-10-8-6-4-2/h33,35,38-39,42-43H,3-32,34,36-37H2,1-2H3,(H,41,44)/b35-33+/t38-,39+/m0/s1
InChI KeyKEPQASGDXIEOIL-GLQCRSEXSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassSphingolipids
Sub ClassCeramides
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • Acyclic Alkene
  • Allyl Alcohol
  • Carboxamide Group
  • N Acyl Amine
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amide
Direct ParentCeramides
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Component of Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycosphingolipid metabolism
  • Component of Prostaglandin and leukotriene metabolism
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
  • Second messenger
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityInsolubleNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.510E-05 g/LALOGPS
logP10.21ALOGPS
logP13.53ChemAxon
logS-7.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.02ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area69.56ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count36ChemAxon
Refractivity193.38ChemAxon
Polarizability86.09ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Keratinocyte
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.022 +/- 0.001 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.128 +/- 0.012 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.040 +/- 0.002 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.145 +/- 0.007 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.22 +/- 0.046 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.281 +/- 0.033 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.00 +/- 0.029 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.00 +/- 0.107 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.271 +/- 0.013 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.036 +/- 0.002 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.061 +/- 0.0007 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.012 +/- 0.001 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.331 +/- 0.029 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.008 +/- 0.001 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023539
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4446680
KEGG Compound IDC00195
BioCyc IDCERAMIDE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCer
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB04952
Metagene LinkHMDB04952
METLIN ID7205
PubChem Compound5283567
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Erdreich-Epstein A, Tran LB, Cox OT, Huang EY, Laug WE, Shimada H, Millard M: Endothelial apoptosis induced by inhibition of integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 involves ceramide metabolic pathways. Blood. 2005 Jun 1;105(11):4353-61. Epub 2005 Feb 10. Pubmed: 15705795
  2. Guchhait P, Lopez JA, Thiagarajan P: Characterization of autoantibodies against sulfatide from a V-gene phage-display library derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Immunol Methods. 2004 Dec;295(1-2):129-37. Epub 2004 Oct 26. Pubmed: 15627618
  3. Ogawa-Goto K, Ohta Y, Kubota K, Funamoto N, Abe T, Taki T, Nagashima K: Glycosphingolipids of human peripheral nervous system myelins isolated from cauda equina. J Neurochem. 1993 Oct;61(4):1398-403. Pubmed: 7690848
  4. Deguchi H, Yegneswaran S, Griffin JH: Sphingolipids as bioactive regulators of thrombin generation. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 26;279(13):12036-42. Epub 2004 Jan 13. Pubmed: 14722105
  5. Holleran WM, Ginns EI, Menon GK, Grundmann JU, Fartasch M, McKinney CE, Elias PM, Sidransky E: Consequences of beta-glucocerebrosidase deficiency in epidermis. Ultrastructure and permeability barrier alterations in Gaucher disease. J Clin Invest. 1994 Apr;93(4):1756-64. Pubmed: 8163674
  6. Saito M, Saito M, Cooper TB, Vadasz C: Ethanol-induced changes in the content of triglycerides, ceramides, and glucosylceramides in cultured neurons. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Aug;29(8):1374-83. Pubmed: 16131844
  7. Garcia-Ruiz C, Mari M, Morales A, Colell A, Ardite E, Fernandez-Checa JC: Human placenta sphingomyelinase, an exogenous acidic pH-optimum sphingomyelinase, induces oxidative stress, glutathione depletion, and apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2000 Jul;32(1):56-65. Pubmed: 10869289
  8. van Lijnschoten G, Groener JE, Maas SM, Ben-Yoseph Y, Dingemans KP, Offerhaus GJ: Intrauterine fetal death due to Farber disease: case report. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2000 Nov-Dec;3(6):597-602. Pubmed: 11000338
  9. Maurer BJ, Melton L, Billups C, Cabot MC, Reynolds CP: Synergistic cytotoxicity in solid tumor cell lines between N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide and modulators of ceramide metabolism. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Dec 6;92(23):1897-909. Pubmed: 11106681
  10. Poliak S, Gollan L, Salomon D, Berglund EO, Ohara R, Ranscht B, Peles E: Localization of Caspr2 in myelinated nerves depends on axon-glia interactions and the generation of barriers along the axon. J Neurosci. 2001 Oct 1;21(19):7568-75. Pubmed: 11567047
  11. Kirby RJ, Zheng S, Tso P, Howles PN, Hui DY: Bile salt-stimulated carboxyl ester lipase influences lipoprotein assembly and secretion in intestine: a process mediated via ceramide hydrolysis. J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 8;277(6):4104-9. Epub 2001 Dec 3. Pubmed: 11733511
  12. Bouwstra JA, Honeywell-Nguyen PL, Gooris GS, Ponec M: Structure of the skin barrier and its modulation by vesicular formulations. Prog Lipid Res. 2003 Jan;42(1):1-36. Pubmed: 12467638
  13. Adams JM 2nd, Pratipanawatr T, Berria R, Wang E, DeFronzo RA, Sullards MC, Mandarino LJ: Ceramide content is increased in skeletal muscle from obese insulin-resistant humans. Diabetes. 2004 Jan;53(1):25-31. Pubmed: 14693694
  14. Mari M, Colell A, Morales A, Paneda C, Varela-Nieto I, Garcia-Ruiz C, Fernandez-Checa JC: Acidic sphingomyelinase downregulates the liver-specific methionine adenosyltransferase 1A, contributing to tumor necrosis factor-induced lethal hepatitis. J Clin Invest. 2004 Mar;113(6):895-904. Pubmed: 15067322
  15. Helge JW, Dobrzyn A, Saltin B, Gorski J: Exercise and training effects on ceramide metabolism in human skeletal muscle. Exp Physiol. 2004 Jan;89(1):119-27. Pubmed: 15109217
  16. Jana A, Pahan K: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 induces apoptosis in human primary neurons through redox-regulated activation of neutral sphingomyelinase. J Neurosci. 2004 Oct 27;24(43):9531-40. Pubmed: 15509740
  17. Yatomi Y, Yamamura S, Hisano N, Nakahara K, Igarashi Y, Ozaki Y: Sphingosine 1-phosphate breakdown in platelets. J Biochem (Tokyo). 2004 Oct;136(4):495-502. Pubmed: 15625319
  18. Chavez JA, Holland WL, Bar J, Sandhoff K, Summers SA: Acid ceramidase overexpression prevents the inhibitory effects of saturated fatty acids on insulin signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005 May 20;280(20):20148-53. Epub 2005 Mar 17. Pubmed: 15774472
  19. Petrache I, Natarajan V, Zhen L, Medler TR, Richter AT, Cho C, Hubbard WC, Berdyshev EV, Tuder RM: Ceramide upregulation causes pulmonary cell apoptosis and emphysema-like disease in mice. Nat Med. 2005 May;11(5):491-8. Epub 2005 Apr 24. Pubmed: 15852018
  20. Demarchi F, Bertoli C, Greer PA, Schneider C: Ceramide triggers an NF-kappaB-dependent survival pathway through calpain. Cell Death Differ. 2005 May;12(5):512-22. Pubmed: 15933726
  21. Klein J: Functions and pathophysiological roles of phospholipase D in the brain. J Neurochem. 2005 Sep;94(6):1473-87. Epub 2005 Jul 22. Pubmed: 16042758
  22. Ogawa-Goto K, Funamoto N, Abe T, Nagashima K: Different ceramide compositions of gangliosides between human motor and sensory nerves. J Neurochem. 1990 Nov;55(5):1486-93. Pubmed: 2213006
  23. Ghadially R, Brown BE, Sequeira-Martin SM, Feingold KR, Elias PM: The aged epidermal permeability barrier. Structural, functional, and lipid biochemical abnormalities in humans and a senescent murine model. J Clin Invest. 1995 May;95(5):2281-90. Pubmed: 7738193
  24. Marchesini S, Demasi L, Cestone P, Preti A, Agmon V, Dagan A, Navon R, Gatt S: Sulforhodamine GM1-ganglioside: synthesis and physicochemical properties. Chem Phys Lipids. 1994 Aug 8;72(2):143-52. Pubmed: 7954976
  25. Tojo K, Oota M, Honda H, Shibasaki T, Sakai O: Possible thyroidal involvement in a case of Fabry disease. Intern Med. 1994 Mar;33(3):172-6. Pubmed: 8061397
  26. Schafer A, Harzer K, Kattner E, Schafer HJ, Stoltenburg G, Lietz H: [Disseminated lipogranulomatosis (Farber disease) with hydrops fetalis] Pathologe. 1996 Mar;17(2):145-9. Pubmed: 8650144
  27. Sando GN, Howard EJ, Madison KC: Induction of ceramide glucosyltransferase activity in cultured human keratinocytes. Correlation with culture differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1996 Sep 6;271(36):22044-51. Pubmed: 8703011
  28. Dunn HG, Dolman CL, Farrell DF, Tischler B, Hasinoff C, Woolf LI: Krabbe's leukodystrophy without globoid cells. Neurology. 1976 Nov;26(11):1035-41. Pubmed: 988509
  29. Bowser PA, Gray GM: Sphingomyelinase in pig and human epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 1978 Jun;70(6):331-5. Pubmed: 25935
  30. Watanabe R, Wu K, Paul P, Marks DL, Kobayashi T, Pittelkow MR, Pagano RE: Up-regulation of glucosylceramide synthase expression and activity during human keratinocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1998 Apr 17;273(16):9651-5. Pubmed: 9545298
  31. Ohnishi Y, Okino N, Ito M, Imayama S: Ceramidase activity in bacterial skin flora as a possible cause of ceramide deficiency in atopic dermatitis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999 Jan;6(1):101-4. Pubmed: 9874672
  32. Humbert P: [Functional consequences of cutaneous lipid perturbation] Pathol Biol (Paris). 2003 Jul;51(5):271-4. Pubmed: 14567193
  33. Cho Y, Lew BL, Seong K, Kim NI: An inverse relationship between ceramide synthesis and clinical severity in patients with psoriasis. J Korean Med Sci. 2004 Dec;19(6):859-63. Pubmed: 15608398
  34. Uchida Y, Behne M, Quiec D, Elias PM, Holleran WM: Vitamin C stimulates sphingolipid production and markers of barrier formation in submerged human keratinocyte cultures. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Nov;117(5):1307-13. Pubmed: 11710949
  35. Pettus BJ, Baes M, Busman M, Hannun YA, Van Veldhoven PP: Mass spectrometric analysis of ceramide perturbations in brain and fibroblasts of mice and human patients with peroxisomal disorders. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(14):1569-74. Pubmed: 15282781
  36. Okamoto R, Arikawa J, Ishibashi M, Kawashima M, Takagi Y, Imokawa G: Sphingosylphosphorylcholine is upregulated in the stratum corneum of patients with atopic dermatitis. J Lipid Res. 2003 Jan;44(1):93-102. Pubmed: 12518027
  37. Lew BL, Cho Y, Kim J, Sim WY, Kim NI: Ceramides and cell signaling molecules in psoriatic epidermis: reduced levels of ceramides, PKC-alpha, and JNK. J Korean Med Sci. 2006 Feb;21(1):95-9. Pubmed: 16479073
  38. Grether-Beck S, Bonizzi G, Schmitt-Brenden H, Felsner I, Timmer A, Sies H, Johnson JP, Piette J, Krutmann J: Non-enzymatic triggering of the ceramide signalling cascade by solar UVA radiation. EMBO J. 2000 Nov 1;19(21):5793-800. Pubmed: 11060030
  39. Satoi H, Tomimoto H, Ohtani R, Kitano T, Kondo T, Watanabe M, Oka N, Akiguchi I, Furuya S, Hirabayashi Y, Okazaki T: Astroglial expression of ceramide in Alzheimer's disease brains: a role during neuronal apoptosis. Neuroscience. 2005;130(3):657-66. Pubmed: 15590150
  40. Gill JS, Windebank AJ: Suramin induced ceramide accumulation leads to apoptotic cell death in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Cell Death Differ. 1998 Oct;5(10):876-83. Pubmed: 10203686
  41. Both DM, Goodtzova K, Yarosh DB, Brown DA: Liposome-encapsulated ursolic acid increases ceramides and collagen in human skin cells. Arch Dermatol Res. 2002 Jan;293(11):569-75. Pubmed: 11876525
  42. Yarosh DB, Both D, Brown D: Liposomal ursolic acid (merotaine) increases ceramides and collagen in human skin. Horm Res. 2000;54(5-6):318-21. Pubmed: 11595826
  43. Persaud-Sawin DA, Boustany RM: Cell death pathways in juvenile Batten disease. Apoptosis. 2005 Oct;10(5):973-85. Pubmed: 16151633
  44. Di Marzio L, Cinque B, De Simone C, Cifone MG: Effect of the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus on ceramide levels in human keratinocytes in vitro and stratum corneum in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Jul;113(1):98-106. Pubmed: 10417626
  45. Tanno O, Ota Y, Kitamura N, Katsube T, Inoue S: Nicotinamide increases biosynthesis of ceramides as well as other stratum corneum lipids to improve the epidermal permeability barrier. Br J Dermatol. 2000 Sep;143(3):524-31. Pubmed: 10971324
  46. Malagarie-Cazenave S, Segui B, Leveque S, Garcia V, Carpentier S, Altie MF, Brouchet A, Gouaze V, Andrieu-Abadie N, Barreira Y, Benoist H, Levade T: Role of FAN in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 secretion and lethality in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 30;279(18):18648-55. Epub 2004 Feb 25. Pubmed: 14985352
  47. Farina F, Cappello F, Todaro M, Bucchieri F, Peri G, Zummo G, Stassi G: Involvement of caspase-3 and GD3 ganglioside in ceramide-induced apoptosis in Farber disease. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000 Jan;48(1):57-62. Pubmed: 10653586
  48. Sugiki H, Hozumi Y, Maeshima H, Katagata Y, Mitsuhashi Y, Kondo S: C2-ceramide induces apoptosis in a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line. Br J Dermatol. 2000 Dec;143(6):1154-63. Pubmed: 11122015
  49. Lee HK, Nam GW, Kim SH, Lee SH: Phytocomponents of triterpenoids, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, regulated differently the processing of epidermal keratinocytes via PPAR-alpha pathway. Exp Dermatol. 2006 Jan;15(1):66-73. Pubmed: 16364033
  50. Di Marzio L, Centi C, Cinque B, Masci S, Giuliani M, Arcieri A, Zicari L, De Simone C, Cifone MG: Effect of the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus on stratum corneum ceramide levels and signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis patients. Exp Dermatol. 2003 Oct;12(5):615-20. Pubmed: 14705802
  51. Bektas M, Orfanos CE, Geilen CC: Different vitamin D analogues induce sphingomyelin hydrolysis and apoptosis in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2000 Feb;46(1):111-9. Pubmed: 10726977
  52. Herr I, Martin-Villalba A, Kurz E, Roncaioli P, Schenkel J, Cifone MG, Debatin KM: FK506 prevents stroke-induced generation of ceramide and apoptosis signaling. Brain Res. 1999 May 1;826(2):210-9. Pubmed: 10224298
  53. Futerman AH: The roles of ceramide in the regulation of neuronal growth and development. Biochemistry (Mosc). 1998 Jan;63(1):74-83. Pubmed: 9526098
  54. Vielhaber G, Pfeiffer S, Brade L, Lindner B, Goldmann T, Vollmer E, Hintze U, Wittern KP, Wepf R: Localization of ceramide and glucosylceramide in human epidermis by immunogold electron microscopy. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Nov;117(5):1126-36. Pubmed: 11710923
  55. Tserng KY, Griffin RL: Ceramide metabolite, not intact ceramide molecule, may be responsible for cellular toxicity. Biochem J. 2004 Jun 15;380(Pt 3):715-22. Pubmed: 14998372

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 70 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidic acid (PA) to diacylglycerol (DG). In addition it hydrolyzes lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), ceramide-1-phosphate (C-1-P) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P). The relative catalytic efficiency is PA > C-1-P > LPA > S-1-P.
Gene Name:
PPAP2C
Uniprot ID:
O43688
Molecular weight:
32573.435
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Broad-specificity phosphohydrolase that dephosphorylates exogenous bioactive glycerolipids and sphingolipids. Catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidic acid (PA) to diacylglycerol (DG). Pivotal regulator of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling in the cardiovascular system. Major enzyme responsible of dephosphorylating LPA in platelets, which terminates signaling actions of LPA. May control circulating, and possibly also regulate localized, LPA levels resulting from platelet activation. It has little activity towards ceramide-1-phosphate (C-1-P) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P). The relative catalytic efficiency is LPA > PA > S-1-P > C-1-P. It's down-regulation may contribute to the development of colon adenocarcinoma.
Gene Name:
PPAP2A
Uniprot ID:
O14494
Molecular weight:
32155.715
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidic acid (PA) to diacylglycerol (DG). In addition it hydrolyzes lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), ceramide-1-phosphate (C-1-P) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P). The relative catalytic efficiency is LPA = PA > C-1-P > S-1-P. May be involved in cell adhesion and in cell-cell interactions.
Gene Name:
PPAP2B
Uniprot ID:
O14495
Molecular weight:
35115.61
General function:
Involved in galactosylceramidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the galactose ester bonds of galactosylceramide, galactosylsphingosine, lactosylceramide, and monogalactosyldiglyceride. Enzyme with very low activity responsible for the lysosomal catabolism of galactosylceramide, a major lipid in myelin, kidney and epithelial cells of small intestine and colon.
Gene Name:
GALC
Uniprot ID:
P54803
Molecular weight:
77062.86
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Bidirectional lipid cholinephosphotransferase capable of converting phosphatidylcholine (PC) and ceramide to sphingomyelin (SM) and diacylglycerol (DAG) and vice versa. Direction is dependent on the relative concentrations of DAG and ceramide as phosphocholine acceptors. Directly and specifically recognizes the choline head group on the substrate. Also requires two fatty chains on the choline-P donor molecule in order to be recognized efficiently as a substrate. Does not function strictly as a SM synthase. Required for cell growth
Gene Name:
SGMS2
Uniprot ID:
Q8NHU3
Molecular weight:
42279.8
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Bidirectional lipid cholinephosphotransferase capable of converting phosphatidylcholine (PC) and ceramide to sphingomyelin (SM) and diacylglycerol (DAG) and vice versa. Direction is dependent on the relative concentrations of DAG and ceramide as phosphocholine acceptors. Directly and specifically recognizes the choline head group on the substrate. Also requires two fatty chains on the choline-P donor molecule in order to be recognized efficiently as a substrate. Does not function strictly as a SM synthase. Suppresses BAX-mediated apoptosis and also prevents cell death in response to stimuli such as hydrogen peroxide, osmotic stress, elevated temperature and exogenously supplied sphingolipids. May protect against cell death by reversing the stress-inducible increase in levels of proapoptotic ceramide. Required for cell growth
Gene Name:
SGMS1
Uniprot ID:
Q86VZ5
Molecular weight:
49207.3
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activities toward 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphocholine and 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphoglycerol. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have lost catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
SMPD1
Uniprot ID:
P17405
Molecular weight:
69935.53
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first glycosylation step in glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, the transfer of glucose to ceramide. May also serve as a "flippase".
Gene Name:
UGCG
Uniprot ID:
Q16739
Molecular weight:
44853.255
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRB3
Molecular weight:
65343.25
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Necessary for the synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol, the very early intermediate in GPI-anchor biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGA
Uniprot ID:
P37287
Molecular weight:
54126.065
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGH
Uniprot ID:
Q14442
Molecular weight:
21080.415
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGP
Uniprot ID:
P57054
Molecular weight:
18089.055
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGC
Uniprot ID:
Q92535
Molecular weight:
33582.18
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Cleaves phosphorylated sphingoid bases (PSBs), such as sphingosine-1-phosphate, into fatty aldehydes and phosphoethanolamine. Elevates stress-induced ceramide production and apoptosis.
Gene Name:
SGPL1
Uniprot ID:
O95470
Molecular weight:
63523.265
General function:
Involved in diacylglycerol kinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of sphingosine to form sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP), a lipid mediator with both intra- and extracellular functions. Also acts on D-erythro-sphingosine and to a lesser extent sphinganine, but not other lipids, such as D,L-threo-dihydrosphingosine, N,N-dimethylsphingosine, diacylglycerol, ceramide, or phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
SPHK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NYA1
Molecular weight:
42517.245
General function:
Involved in lipid metabolic process
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the sphingolipid ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acid.
Gene Name:
ASAH1
Uniprot ID:
Q13510
Molecular weight:
44045.27
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activity toward palmitoyl lyso-phosphocholine. Does not appear to have nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity.
Gene Name:
ENPP7
Uniprot ID:
Q6UWV6
Molecular weight:
51493.415
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Hydrolyze 1-acyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PC) and 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-platelet-activating factor). The physiological substrate seems to be Lyso-PAF.
Gene Name:
SMPD2
Uniprot ID:
O60906
Molecular weight:
47645.29
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of galactose to ceramide, a key enzymatic step in the biosynthesis of galactocerebrosides, which are abundant sphingolipids of the myelin membrane of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
Gene Name:
UGT8
Uniprot ID:
Q16880
Molecular weight:
61455.31
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
May mediate the intracellular trafficking of ceramide in a non-vesicular manner
Gene Name:
COL4A3BP
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5P4
Molecular weight:
70834.4
General function:
Involved in diacylglycerol kinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes specifically the phosphorylation of ceramide to form ceramide 1-phosphate. Acts efficiently on natural and analog ceramides (C6, C8, C16 ceramides, and C8-dihydroceramide), to a lesser extent on C2-ceramide and C6-dihydroceramide, but not on other lipids, such as various sphingosines. Binds phosphoinositides
Gene Name:
CERK
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCT0
Molecular weight:
59977.0
General function:
Involved in sphingolipid activator protein activity
Specific function:
Binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3
Gene Name:
GM2A
Uniprot ID:
P17900
Molecular weight:
20838.1
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GBA
Uniprot ID:
P04062
Molecular weight:
59715.745
General function:
Involved in immune response
Specific function:
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. The membrane-associated form is not active
Gene Name:
CD1E
Uniprot ID:
P15812
Molecular weight:
43626.1
General function:
Involved in cholesterol binding
Specific function:
May be involved in the regulation of the lipid composition of sperm membranes during the maturation in the epididymis
Gene Name:
NPC2
Uniprot ID:
P61916
Molecular weight:
16570.1
General function:
Involved in sphingosine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
May be either a bona fide (dihydro)ceramide synthase or a modulator of its activity. When overexpressed in cells is involved in the production of sphingolipids containing mainly one fatty acid donor (N-linked stearoyl- (C18) ceramide) in a fumonisin B1-independent manner (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CERS1
Uniprot ID:
P27544
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in immune response
Specific function:
Antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self glycolipids and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells
Gene Name:
CD1D
Uniprot ID:
P15813
Molecular weight:
37717.0
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers the first alpha-1,4-mannose to GlcN-acyl-PI during GPI precursor assembly
Gene Name:
PIGM
Uniprot ID:
Q9H3S5
Molecular weight:
49459.2
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific function:
Probable acetyltransferase, which acetylates the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol during biosynthesis of GPI-anchor. Acetylation during GPI-anchor biosynthesis is not essential for the subsequent mannosylation and is usually removed soon after the attachment of GPIs to proteins (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PIGW
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z7B1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Essential component of glycosylphosphatidylinositol- mannosyltransferase 1 which transfers the first of the 4 mannoses in the GPI-anchor precursors during GPI-anchor biosynthesis. Probably acts by stabilizing the mannosyltransferase PIGM
Gene Name:
PIGX
Uniprot ID:
Q8TBF5
Molecular weight:
28788.1
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
Mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers a fourth mannose to some trimannosyl-GPIs during GPI precursor assembly. The presence of a fourth mannose in GPI is facultative and only scarcely detected, suggesting that it only exists in some tissues
Gene Name:
PIGZ
Uniprot ID:
Q86VD9
Molecular weight:
63472.6
General function:
Involved in galactosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that plays a key role in the synthesis of lacto- or neolacto-series carbohydrate chains on glycolipids, notably by participating in biosynthesis of HNK-1 and Lewis X carbohydrate structures. Has strong activity toward lactosylceramide (LacCer) and neolactotetraosylceramide (nLc(4)Cer; paragloboside), resulting in the synthesis of Lc(3)Cer and neolactopentaosylceramide (nLc(5)Cer), respectively. Probably plays a central role in regulating neolacto-series glycolipid synthesis during embryonic development.
Gene Name:
B3GNT5
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYG0
Molecular weight:
44052.295
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to form ceramide and phosphocholine. Ceramide mediates numerous cellular functions, such as apoptosis and growth arrest, and is capable of regulating these 2 cellular events independently. Also hydrolyzes sphingosylphosphocholine. Regulates the cell cycle by acting as a growth suppressor in confluent cells. Probably acts as a regulator of postnatal development and participates in bone and dentin mineralization.
Gene Name:
SMPD3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY59
Molecular weight:
71080.1
General function:
Involved in galactosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of Gal to GlcNAc-based acceptors with a preference for the core3 O-linked glycan GlcNAc(beta1,3)GalNAc structure. Can use glycolipid LC3Cer as an efficient acceptor
Gene Name:
B3GALT5
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2C3
Molecular weight:
36188.9
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
Mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers the third alpha-1,2-mannose to Man2-GlcN-acyl-PI during GPI precursor assembly
Gene Name:
PIGB
Uniprot ID:
Q92521
Molecular weight:
65055.9
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Involved in GPI-anchor biosynthesis through the transfer of ethanolamine phosphate to the third mannose of GPI
Gene Name:
PIGF
Uniprot ID:
Q07326
Molecular weight:
24889.3
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Ethanolamine phosphate transferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers ethanolamine phosphate to the GPI second mannose
Gene Name:
PIGG
Uniprot ID:
Q5H8A4
Molecular weight:
108171.7
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Ethanolamine phosphate transferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers ethanolamine phosphate to the first alpha-1,4-linked mannose of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol precursor of GPI-anchor
Gene Name:
PIGN
Uniprot ID:
O95427
Molecular weight:
105809.2
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Ethanolamine phosphate transferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers ethanolamine phosphate to the GPI third mannose which links the GPI-anchor to the C-terminus of the proteins by an amide bond
Gene Name:
PIGO
Uniprot ID:
Q8TEQ8
Molecular weight:
118697.6
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Component of the GPI transamidase complex. Essential for transfer of GPI to proteins, particularly for formation of carbonyl intermediates
Gene Name:
PIGS
Uniprot ID:
Q96S52
Molecular weight:
61655.5
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Component of the GPI transamidase complex. Essential for transfer of GPI to proteins, particularly for formation of carbonyl intermediates
Gene Name:
PIGT
Uniprot ID:
Q969N2
Molecular weight:
65699.0
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Component of the GPI transamidase complex. May be involved in the recognition of either the GPI attachment signal or the lipid portion of GPI
Gene Name:
PIGU
Uniprot ID:
Q9H490
Molecular weight:
50051.2
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers the second mannose to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol during GPI precursor assembly
Gene Name:
PIGV
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUD9
Molecular weight:
55712.1
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Component of the GPI-GlcNAc transferase (GPI-GnT) complex in the endoplasmic reticulum, a complex that catalyzes transfer of GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc to an acceptor phosphatidylinositol, the first step in the production of GPI- anchors for cell surface proteins. May act by regulating the catalytic subunit PIGA
Gene Name:
PIGY
Uniprot ID:
Q3MUY2
Molecular weight:
8057.5
General function:
Involved in glycolipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in TGN-to-plasma membrane transport and in the formation of post-Golgi constitutive carriers. May play a role in ensuring the coordination of the budding and the fission reactions
Gene Name:
PLEKHA8
Uniprot ID:
Q96JA3
Molecular weight:
58306.0
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin to form phosphorylcholine and ceramide.
Gene Name:
SMPD4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NXE4
Molecular weight:
86192.575
General function:
Involved in ceramidase activity
Specific function:
May hydrolyze the sphingolipid ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ASAH2C
Uniprot ID:
P0C7U2
Molecular weight:
Not Available

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 70 proteins in total.