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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-10-17 08:50:19 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:07:02 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB05018
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAmlodipine
DescriptionAmlodipine is a long-acting calcium channel blocker used as an anti-hypertensive and in the treatment of angina. As other calcium channel blockers, amlodipine acts by relaxing the smooth muscle in the arterial wall, decreasing peripheral resistance and hence improving blood pressure; in angina it improves blood flow to the myocardium. It was developed under the direction of Dr. Simon Campbell; A long acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension; in angina it improves blood flow to the myocardium. Amlodipine (as besylate, mesylate or maleate) is a long-acting calcium channel blocker used as an anti hypertensive and in the treatment of angina. Amlodipine is marketed as Norvasc in North America and as Istin in the United Kingdom as well as under various other names. As other calcium channel blockers, amlodipine acts by relaxing the smooth muscle in the arterial wall, decreasing peripheral resistance and hence improving blood pressure; Amlodipine (as besylate, mesylate or maleate) is a long-acting calcium channel blocker used as an anti-hypertensive and in the treatment of angina. Amlodipine is marketed as Norvasc in North America and as Istin in the United Kingdom as well as under various other names. As other calcium channel blockers, amlodipine acts by relaxing the smooth muscle in the arterial wall, decreasing peripheral resistance and hence improving blood pressure; in angina it improves blood flow to the myocardium. It was developed under the direction of Dr. Simon Campbell.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-Ethyl-5-methyl (+-)-2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(O-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylateChEBI
Amlodipine free baseChEBI
AmlodipinoChEBI
AmlodipinumChEBI
Amlodipine besilateHMDB
Amlodipine besylateHMDB
AMVAZHMDB
IstinHMDB
NorvascHMDB
PelmecHMDB
Racemic amlodipineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC20H25ClN2O5
Average Molecular Weight408.876
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight408.145199627
IUPAC Name3-ethyl 5-methyl 2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
Traditional Name(+-)-amlodipine
CAS Registry Number88150-42-9
SMILES
CCOC(=O)C1=C(COCCN)NC(C)=C(C1C1=CC=CC=C1Cl)C(=O)OC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C20H25ClN2O5/c1-4-28-20(25)18-15(11-27-10-9-22)23-12(2)16(19(24)26-3)17(18)13-7-5-6-8-14(13)21/h5-8,17,23H,4,9-11,22H2,1-3H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=HTIQEAQVCYTUBX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a dihydropyridine moiety bearing a carboxylic acid group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyridines and derivatives
Sub ClassHydropyridines
Direct ParentDihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dihydropyridinecarboxylic acid derivative
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester
  • Enoate ester
  • Methyl ester
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Azacycle
  • Ether
  • Enamine
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP3.00AUSTIN,RP ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0074 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.22ALOGPS
logP1.64ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.45ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area99.88 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity108.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Skin
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Amlodipine PathwaySMP00376Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023590
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2077
KEGG Compound IDC06825
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAmlodipine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB05018
Metagene LinkHMDB05018
METLIN ID955
PubChem Compound2162
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID2668
References
Synthesis ReferenceKim, Seok-Chan; Choi, Kwan-Min; Cheong, Chan-Seong. Synthesis of amlodipine using aza Diels-Alder reaction. Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society (2002), 23(1), 143-144.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Iabichella ML, Dell'Omo G, Melillo E, Pedrinelli R: Calcium channel blockers blunt postural cutaneous vasoconstriction in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 1997 Mar;29(3):751-6. [9052891 ]
  2. Pedrinelli R, Dell'Omo G, Nuti M, Menegato A, Balbarini A, Mariani M: Heterogeneous effect of calcium antagonists on leg oedema: a comparison of amlodipine versus lercanidipine in hypertensive patients. J Hypertens. 2003 Oct;21(10):1969-73. [14508205 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular weight:
28870.0
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1B gives rise to N-type calcium currents. N-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and by omega-agatoxin- IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to dihydropyridines (DHP), and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing alpha-1B subunit may play a role in directed migration of immature neurons
Gene Name:
CACNA1B
Uniprot ID:
Q00975
Molecular weight:
262493.8
General function:
Involved in voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific function:
This protein is a subunit of the dihydropyridine (DHP) sensitive calcium channel. Plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. The skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channel may function only as a multiple subunit complex
Gene Name:
CACNG1
Uniprot ID:
Q06432
Molecular weight:
25028.1