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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-12-06 15:50:26 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:07:13 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB05453
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTG(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z))[iso]
DescriptionTG(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)) or Triolein is a monoacid triglyceride. Triglycerides (TGs) are also known as triacylglycerols or triacylglycerides. TGs are fatty acid triesters of glycerol and may be divided into three general types with respect to their acyl substituents. They are simple or monoacid if they contain only one type of fatty acid, diacid if they contain two types of fatty acids and triacid if three different acyl groups. Chain lengths of the fatty acids in naturally occurring triglycerides can be of varying lengths and saturations but 16, 18 and 20 carbons are the most common. TGs are the main constituent of vegetable oil and animal fats. TGs are major components of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons, play an important role in metabolism as energy sources and transporters of dietary fat. They contain more than twice the energy (9 kcal/g) of carbohydrates and proteins. In the intestine, triglycerides are split into glycerol and fatty acids (this process is called lipolysis) (with the help of lipases and bile secretions), which can then move into blood vessels. The triglycerides are rebuilt in the blood from their fragments and become constituents of lipoproteins, which deliver the fatty acids to and from fat cells among other functions. Various tissues can release the free fatty acids and take them up as a source of energy. Fat cells can synthesize and store triglycerides. When the body requires fatty acids as an energy source, the hormone glucagon signals the breakdown of the triglycerides by hormone-sensitive lipase to release free fatty acids. As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source, the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose for brain fuel when it is broken down. (www.cyberlipid.org, www.wikipedia.org). TAGs can serve as fatty acid stores in all cells, but primarily in adipocytes of adipose tissue. The major building block for the synthesis of triacylglycerides, in non-adipose tissue, is glycerol. Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), which is produced during glycolysis, is the precursor for TAG synthesis in adipose tissue. DHAP can also serve as a TAG precursor in non-adipose tissues, but does so to a much lesser extent than glycerol. The use of DHAP for the TAG backbone depends on whether the synthesis of the TAGs occurs in the mitochondria and ER or the ER and the peroxisomes. The ER/mitochondria pathway requires the action of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to convert DHAP to glycerol-3-phosphate. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase then esterifies a fatty acid to glycerol-3-phosphate thereby generating lysophosphatidic acid. The ER/peroxisome reaction pathway uses the peroxisomal enzyme DHAP acyltransferase to acylate DHAP to acyl-DHAP which is then reduced by acyl-DHAP reductase. The fatty acids that are incorporated into TAGs are activated to acyl-CoAs through the action of acyl-CoA synthetases. Two molecules of acyl-CoA are esterified to glycerol-3-phosphate to yield 1,2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP1), to generate 1,2-diacylglycerol. This diacylglycerol serves as the substrate for addition of the third fatty acid to make TAG. Intestinal monoacylglycerols, derived from dietary fats, can also serve as substrates for the synthesis of 1,2-diacylglycerols.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid, 1,2,3-propanetriyl esterChEBI
1,2,3-Tri-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-glycerolChEBI
Glycerin trioleateChEBI
Glycerol trioleateChEBI
Glycerol trioleinChEBI
Glycerol, tri(cis-9-octadecenoate)ChEBI
Glyceryl trioleateChEBI
Glyceryl-1,2,3-trioleateChEBI
Oleic acid triglycerideChEBI
Oleic triglycerideChEBI
OleinChEBI
Oleyl triglycerideChEBI
Propane-1,2,3-triyl (9Z,9'z,9''z)tris-octadec-9-enoateChEBI
TG(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z))[iso]ChEBI
TrioleoylglycerideChEBI
TrioleoylglycerolChEBI
(Z)-9-Octadecenoate, 1,2,3-propanetriyl esterGenerator
(9Z)-1,1',1''-(1,2,3-Propanetriyl) ester 9-octadecenoateHMDB
(9Z)-1,1',1''-(1,2,3-Propanetriyl) ester 9-octadecenoic acidHMDB
(9Z)-1,2,3-Propanetriyl ester 9-octadecenoateHMDB
(9Z)-1,2,3-Propanetriyl ester 9-octadecenoic acidHMDB
(Z)-1,2,3-Propanetriyl ester 9-octadecenoateHMDB
(Z)-1,2,3-Propanetriyl ester 9-octadecenoic acidHMDB
1,2,3-Tri-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycerolHMDB
Actor lo 1HMDB
aldo TOHMDB
Edenor nhti-gHMDB
Emerest 2423HMDB
Emery 2423HMDB
Emery oleic acid ester 2230HMDB
Estol 1433HMDB
Kaolube 190HMDB
Kemester 1000HMDB
Radia 7363HMDB
RaolineHMDB
sn-Glyceryl trioleateHMDB
TG(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z))HMDB
Tri-oleinHMDB
Triglyceride oooHMDB
TrioleinHMDB
Chemical FormulaC57H104O6
Average Molecular Weight885.4321
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight884.78329106
IUPAC Name1,3-bis[(9Z)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]propan-2-yl (9Z)-octadec-9-enoate
Traditional Nametriolein
CAS Registry Number122-32-7
SMILES
CCCCCCCC\C=C/CCCCCCCC(=O)OCC(COC(=O)CCCCCCC\C=C/CCCCCCCC)OC(=O)CCCCCCC\C=C/CCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C57H104O6/c1-4-7-10-13-16-19-22-25-28-31-34-37-40-43-46-49-55(58)61-52-54(63-57(60)51-48-45-42-39-36-33-30-27-24-21-18-15-12-9-6-3)53-62-56(59)50-47-44-41-38-35-32-29-26-23-20-17-14-11-8-5-2/h25-30,54H,4-24,31-53H2,1-3H3/b28-25-,29-26-,30-27-
InChI KeyInChIKey=PHYFQTYBJUILEZ-IUPFWZBJSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as triacylglycerols. These are glycerides consisting of three fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassGlycerolipids
Sub ClassTriradylcglycerols
Direct ParentTriacylglycerols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Triacyl-sn-glycerol
  • Tricarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Fatty acyl
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-32 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.14e-06 mg/mLALOGPS
logP10.82ALOGPS
logP20.51ChemAxon
logS-8.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area78.9 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count53ChemAxon
Refractivity272.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability116.96 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood28.3768418 +/- 7.043489286 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal (Most Probable)Calculated using MetaboAnalyst
Blood175.3888889 +/- 30.28590309 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal (Upper Limit)Calculated using MetaboAnalyst
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB002910
KNApSAcK IDC00032423
Chemspider ID4593733
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTriolein
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB05453
Metagene LinkHMDB05453
METLIN ID4947
PubChem Compound5497163
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID53753
References
Synthesis ReferenceDesnuelle, P.; Naudet, M. Isomerization of oleic acid during the synthesis of triolein. Bull. soc. chim. (1945), 12 998-1001. CAN 40:19192 AN 1946:19192 CAPLUS
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Hollebeeck S, Borlon F, Schneider YJ, Larondelle Y, Rogez H: Development of a standardised human in vitro digestion protocol based on macronutrient digestion using response surface methodology. Food Chem. 2013 Jun 1;138(2-3):1936-44. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.041. Epub 2012 Nov 17. [23411328 ]
  2. Wang Y, Wang YJ, Wang L, Fang GD, Cang L, Herath HM, Zhou DM: Reducing the bioavailability of PCBs in soil to plant by biochars assessed with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane technique. Environ Pollut. 2013 Mar;174:250-6. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.12.004. Epub 2012 Dec 29. [23279904 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PNLIP
Uniprot ID:
P16233
Molecular weight:
51156.48
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hepatic lipase has the capacity to catalyze hydrolysis of phospholipids, mono-, di-, and triglycerides, and acyl-CoA thioesters. It is an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. Hepatic lipase binds heparin.
Gene Name:
LIPC
Uniprot ID:
P11150
Molecular weight:
55914.1
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
May function as inhibitor of dietary triglyceride digestion. Lacks detectable lipase activity towards triglycerides, diglycerides, phosphatidylcholine, galactolipids or cholesterol esters (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PNLIPRP1
Uniprot ID:
P54315
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme which has both triacylglycerol lipase and acylglycerol O-acyltransferase activities.
Gene Name:
PNPLA3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NST1
Molecular weight:
52864.64
General function:
Involved in lipid metabolic process
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LIPF
Uniprot ID:
P07098
Molecular weight:
45237.375
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has phospholipase and triglyceride lipase activities. Hydrolyzes high density lipoproteins (HDL) more efficiently than other lipoproteins. Binds heparin.
Gene Name:
LIPG
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5X9
Molecular weight:
56794.275
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes fat and vitamin absorption. Acts in concert with pancreatic lipase and colipase for the complete digestion of dietary triglycerides.
Gene Name:
CEL
Uniprot ID:
P19835
Molecular weight:
79666.385
General function:
Involved in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the terminal and only committed step in triacylglycerol synthesis by using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. In contrast to DGAT2 it is not essential for survival. May be involved in VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) assembly. In liver, plays a role in esterifying exogenous fatty acids to glycerol. Functions as the major acyl-CoA retinol acyltransferase (ARAT) in the skin, where it acts to maintain retinoid homeostasis and prevent retinoid toxicity leading to skin and hair disorders.
Gene Name:
DGAT1
Uniprot ID:
O75907
Molecular weight:
55277.735
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Lipase with broad substrate specificity. Can hydrolyze both phospholipids and galactolipids. Acts preferentially on monoglycerides, phospholipids and galactolipids. Contributes to milk fat hydrolysis.
Gene Name:
PNLIPRP2
Uniprot ID:
P54317
Molecular weight:
52077.475
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The primary function of this lipase is the hydrolysis of triglycerides of circulating chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Binding to heparin sulfate proteogylcans at the cell surface is vital to the function. The apolipoprotein, APOC2, acts as a coactivator of LPL activity in the presence of lipids on the luminal surface of vascular endothelium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
LPL
Uniprot ID:
P06858
Molecular weight:
53162.07
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Converts monoacylglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. Hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and thereby contributes to the regulation of endocannabinoid signaling, nociperception and perception of pain (By similarity). Regulates the levels of fatty acids that serve as signaling molecules and promote cancer cell migration, invasion and tumor growth.
Gene Name:
MGLL
Uniprot ID:
Q99685
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity, catalyzing the ethyl esterification of oleic acid to ethyloleate.
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Molecular weight:
62520.62
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
In adipose tissue and heart, it primarily hydrolyzes stored triglycerides to free fatty acids, while in steroidogenic tissues, it principally converts cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol for steroid hormone production.
Gene Name:
LIPE
Uniprot ID:
Q05469
Molecular weight:
116596.715
General function:
Involved in isomerase activity
Specific function:
This multifunctional protein catalyzes the formation, breakage and rearrangement of disulfide bonds. At the cell surface, seems to act as a reductase that cleaves disulfide bonds of proteins attached to the cell. May therefore cause structural modifications of exofacial proteins. Inside the cell, seems to form/rearrange disulfide bonds of nascent proteins. At high concentrations, functions as a chaperone that inhibits aggregation of misfolded proteins. At low concentrations, facilitates aggregation (anti-chaperone activity). May be involved with other chaperones in the structural modification of the TG precursor in hormone biogenesis. Also acts a structural subunit of various enzymes such as prolyl 4-hydroxylase and microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein MTTP
Gene Name:
P4HB
Uniprot ID:
P07237
Molecular weight:
57115.8
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of diacylglycerol from 2-monoacylglycerol and fatty acyl-CoA. Has a preference toward monoacylglycerols containing unsaturated fatty acids in an order of C18:3 > C18:2 > C18:1 > C18:0. Plays a central role in absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine by catalyzing the resynthesis of triacylglycerol in enterocytes. May play a role in diet-induced obesity.
Gene Name:
MOGAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q3SYC2
Molecular weight:
38195.285
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Lipid hydrolase.
Gene Name:
PNPLA4
Uniprot ID:
P41247
Molecular weight:
27980.17
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Essential acyltransferase that catalyzes the terminal and only committed step in triacylglycerol synthesis by using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. Required for synthesis and storage of intracellular triglycerides. Probably plays a central role in cytosolic lipid accumulation. In liver, is primarily responsible for incorporating endogenously synthesized fatty acids into triglycerides (By similarity). Functions also as an acyl-CoA retinol acyltransferase (ARAT).
Gene Name:
DGAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q96PD7
Molecular weight:
39043.88
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of diacylglycerol from 2-monoacylglycerol and fatty acyl-CoA. Probably not involved in absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MOGAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q96PD6
Molecular weight:
38812.19
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of diacylglycerol from 2-monoacylglycerol and fatty acyl-CoA. Also able to catalyze the terminal step in triacylglycerol synthesis by using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl-CoA as substrates. Has a preference toward palmitoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA. May be involved in absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine by catalyzing the resynthesis of triacylglycerol in enterocytes.
Gene Name:
MOGAT3
Uniprot ID:
Q86VF5
Molecular weight:
38729.84
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-associated phospholipase. Exhibits a calcium-independent broad substrate specificity including phospholipase A2/lysophospholipase activity. Preferential hydrolysis at the sn-2 position of diacylphospholipids and diacyglycerol, whereas it shows no positional specificity toward triacylglycerol. Exhibits also esterase activity toward p-nitrophenyl. May act on the brush border membrane to facilitate the absorption of digested lipids (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PLB1
Uniprot ID:
Q6P1J6
Molecular weight:
161711.9
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Esterifies acyl-group from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid biosynthesis. Overexpression activates the mTOR pathway.
Gene Name:
AGPAT9
Uniprot ID:
Q53EU6
Molecular weight:
48704.805
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial step in triglyceride hydrolysis in adipocyte and non-adipocyte lipid droplets. Also has acylglycerol transacylase activity. May act coordinately with LIPE/HLS within the lipolytic cascade. Regulates adiposome size and may be involved in the degradation of adiposomes. May play an important role in energy homeostasis. May play a role in the response of the organism to starvation, enhancing hydrolysis of triglycerides and providing free fatty acids to other tissues to be oxidized in situations of energy depletion.
Gene Name:
PNPLA2
Uniprot ID:
Q96AD5
Molecular weight:
55315.245
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PNLIPRP3
Uniprot ID:
Q17RR3
Molecular weight:
52253.41
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
May play a role in triacylglycerol packaging into adipocytes. May function as a coat protein involved in the biogenesis of lipid droplets
Gene Name:
PLIN4
Uniprot ID:
Q96Q06
Molecular weight:
134431.0
General function:
Involved in enzyme activator activity
Specific function:
Component of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) fraction in plasma, and is an activator of several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of APOC2 with plasma chylomicrons, VLDL, and HDL is reversible, a function of the secretion and catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and changes rapidly
Gene Name:
APOC2
Uniprot ID:
P02655
Molecular weight:
11283.8

Transporters

General function:
Involved in lipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transport of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between phospholipid surfaces. Required for the secretion of plasma lipoproteins that contain apolipoprotein B
Gene Name:
MTTP
Uniprot ID:
P55157
Molecular weight:
99350.3