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Record Information
Creation Date2007-05-22 16:35:51 UTC
Update Date2013-05-30 04:24:13 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name4,8 Dimethylnonanoyl carnitine
Description4,8 dimethylnonanoyl carnitine is an intermediate in phytanic and pristanic acid metabolism. Both phytanic acid and pristanic acid are initially oxidized in peroxisomes to 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, which is then converted to to 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl carnitine (presumably by peroxisomal carnitine octanoyltransferase), and exported to the mitochondrion. After transport across the mitochondrial membrane and transfer of the acylgroup to coenzyme A, further oxidation to 2,6-dimethylheptanoyl-CoA occurs (PMID: 9469587 ). 4,8 dimethylnonanoyl carnitine is not a substrate for carnitine acetyltransferase, another acyltransferase localized in peroxisomes, which catalyzes the formation of carnitine esters of the other products of pristanic acid beta-oxidation, namely acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA. (PMID: 10486279 ). Earlier studies have shown that pristanic acid undergoes three cycles of beta-oxidation in peroxisomes to produce 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA (DMN-CoA) which is then transported to the mitochondria for full oxidation to CO(2) and H(2)O. In principle, this can be done via two different mechanisms in which DMN-CoA is either converted into the corresponding carnitine ester or hydrolyzed to 4,8-dimethylnonanoic acid plus CoASH.(PMID: 11785945 ). Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) and pristanic acid (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecanoic acid) are branched-chain fatty acids that are constituents of the human diet. As phytanic acid possesses a beta-methyl group, it cannot be degraded by beta-oxidation. Instead, phytanic acid is first degraded by alpha-oxidation, yielding pristanic acid, which is subsequently degraded by beta-oxidation. Phytanic acid alpha-oxidation is thought to occur partly, and pristanic acid beta-oxidation exclusively, in peroxisomes. Accumulation of phytanic acid and pristanic acid is found in blood and tissues of patients affected with generalized peroxisomal disorders.
  1. 4,8-Dimethylnonanoylcarnitine
Chemical FormulaC18H35NO4
Average Molecular Weight329.4748
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight329.256608613
IUPAC Name3-[(4,8-dimethylnonanoyl)oxy]-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
Traditional Name4,8-dimethylnonanoylcarnitine
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl carnitines. These are organic compounds containing a fatty acid with the carboxylic acid attached to carnitine through an ester bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acid esters
Direct ParentAcyl carnitines
Alternative Parents
  • Acyl-carnitine
  • Carnitine
  • Acyl choline
  • Choline
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
StatusExpected but not Quantified
  • Endogenous
  • Food
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Lipid catabolism, Fatty acid transport, Energy production
  • Membrane integrity/stability
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.000236 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.29ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.43 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity113.97 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.58 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty AcidsSMP00030Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023834
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID21233922
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID2365396
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB06202
Metagene LinkHMDB06202
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound53477801
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID63874
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Ferdinandusse S, Mulders J, IJlst L, Denis S, Dacremont G, Waterham HR, Wanders RJ: Molecular cloning and expression of human carnitine octanoyltransferase: evidence for its role in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Sep 16;263(1):213-8. [10486279 ]
  2. Verhoeven NM, Roe DS, Kok RM, Wanders RJ, Jakobs C, Roe CR: Phytanic acid and pristanic acid are oxidized by sequential peroxisomal and mitochondrial reactions in cultured fibroblasts. J Lipid Res. 1998 Jan;39(1):66-74. [9469587 ]
  3. Ofman R, el Mrabet L, Dacremont G, Spijer D, Wanders RJ: Demonstration of dimethylnonanoyl-CoA thioesterase activity in rat liver peroxisomes followed by purification and molecular cloning of the thioesterase involved. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 18;290(2):629-34. [11785945 ]


General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The highest activity concerns the C6 to C10 chain length substrate. Converts the end product of pristanic acid beta oxidation, 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, to its corresponding carnitine ester.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the transport of acylcarnitines of different length across the mitochondrial inner membrane from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix for their oxidation by the mitochondrial fatty acid-oxidation pathway.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight: