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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2007-05-22 19:02:18 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:43:14 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB06242
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB04057
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde
Description3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde is the monoamine oxidase (MAO) aldehyde metabolite of both norepinephrine and epinephrine. 3,4- dihydroxymandelaldehyde generates a free radical and activates mitochondrial permeability transition, a mechanism implicated in neuron death. There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting that these compounds are neurotoxic, and it has been recently hypothesized that neurodegenerative disorders may be associated with increased levels of this biogenic aldehyde. It is possible to speculate that reduced detoxification of 3,4- dihydroxymandelaldehyde from impaired or deficient aldehyde dehydrogenase function may be a contributing factor in the suggested neurotoxicity of these compounds. Aldehyde dehydrogenases are a group of NAD(P)+ -dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes, such as those derived from catecholamines, to their corresponding carboxylic acids. To date, 19 aldehyde dehydrogenase genes have been identified in the human genome. Mutations in these genes and subsequent inborn errors in aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases. Several pharmaceutical agents and environmental toxins are also known to disrupt or inhibit aldehyde dehydrogenase function. (PMID: 17379813 , 14697885 , 11164826 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde
  2. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycolic aldehyde
  3. a,3,4-Trihydroxy-Benzeneacetaldehyde
  4. alpha,3,4-Trihydroxy-Benzeneacetaldehyde
Chemical FormulaC8H8O4
Average Molecular Weight168.1467
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight168.042258744
IUPAC Name2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxyacetaldehyde
Traditional Name2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxyacetaldehyde
CAS Registry Number13023-73-9
SMILES
OC(C=O)C1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H8O4/c9-4-8(12)5-1-2-6(10)7(11)3-5/h1-4,8,10-12H
InChI KeyYUGMCLJIWGEKCK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
ClassPhenylacetaldehydes
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Organic Compounds
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • aldehyde(ChEBI)
  • catechols(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diphenol
  • Aldehyde
  • Benzyl Alcohol Derivative
  • Phenol
  • Phenol Derivative
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentPhenylacetaldehydes
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.0ALOGPS
logP0.2ALOGPS
logP0.13ChemAxon
logS-1.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity41.74 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.68 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006map00350
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023855
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID133725
KEGG Compound IDC05577
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID46056
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB06242
Metagene LinkHMDB06242
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound151725
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID27852
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Marchitti SA, Deitrich RA, Vasiliou V: Neurotoxicity and metabolism of the catecholamine-derived 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde: the role of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Pharmacol Rev. 2007 Jun;59(2):125-50. Epub 2007 Mar 22. Pubmed: 17379813
  2. Burke WJ, Li SW, Chung HD, Ruggiero DA, Kristal BS, Johnson EM, Lampe P, Kumar VB, Franko M, Williams EA, Zahm DS: Neurotoxicity of MAO metabolites of catecholamine neurotransmitters: role in neurodegenerative diseases. Neurotoxicology. 2004 Jan;25(1-2):101-15. Pubmed: 14697885
  3. Burke WJ, Li SW, Zahm DS, Macarthur H, Kolo LL, Westfall TC, Anwar M, Glickstein SB, Ruggiero DA: Catecholamine monoamine oxidase a metabolite in adrenergic neurons is cytotoxic in vivo. Brain Res. 2001 Feb 9;891(1-2):218-27. Pubmed: 11164826

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular weight:
58762.475
Reactions
Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
Reactions
Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation. This protein preferentially oxidizes aromatic aldehyde substrates. It may play a role in the oxidation of toxic aldehydes.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A1
Uniprot ID:
P30838
Molecular weight:
50394.57
Reactions
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Molecular weight:
56107.995
Reactions
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH4
Uniprot ID:
P08319
Molecular weight:
40221.335
Reactions
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol + NAD → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH3B2
Uniprot ID:
P48448
Molecular weight:
42623.62
Reactions
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Oxidizes medium and long chain saturated and unsaturated aldehydes. Metabolizes also benzaldehyde. Low activity towards acetaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. May not metabolize short chain aldehydes. May use both NADP(+) and NAD(+) as cofactors. May have a protective role against the cytotoxicity induced by lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH3B1
Uniprot ID:
P43353
Molecular weight:
51839.245
Reactions
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular weight:
39723.945
Reactions
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol + NAD → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular weight:
39835.17
Reactions
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol + NAD → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass ethanol metabolism.
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular weight:
41480.985
Reactions
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol + NAD → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular weight:
39858.37
Reactions
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol + NAD → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Molecular weight:
39072.275
Reactions
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol + NAD → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular weight:
39867.27
Reactions
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol + NAD → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails