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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2008-08-06 10:34:46 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 01:59:38 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0006750
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB04868
  • HMDB06750
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLactosylceramide (d18:1/16:0)
DescriptionLactosylceramide (d18:1/16:0) is a lactosylceramide or LacCer. Lactosylceramides are the most important and abundant of the diosylceramides. Lactosylceramides (LacCer) were originally called 'cytolipin H'. It is found in small amounts only in most animal tissues, but it has a number of significant biological functions and it is of great importance as the biosynthetic precursor of most of the neutral oligoglycosylceramides, sulfatides and gangliosides. In animal tissues, biosynthesis of lactosylceramide involves addition of the second monosaccharides unit (galactose) as its nucleotide derivative to monoglucosylceramide, catalysed by a specific beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase on the lumenal side of the Golgi apparatus. The glucosylceramide precursor must first cross from the cytosolic side of the membrane, possibly via the action of a flippase. The lactosylceramide produced can be further glycosylated or transferred to the plasma membrane. Lactosylceramide may assist in stabilizing the plasma membrane and activating receptor molecules in the special micro-domains or rafts, as with the cerebrosides. It may also have its own specialized function in the immunological system in that it is known to bind to specific bacteria. In addition, it is believed that a number of pro-inflammatory factors activate lactosylceramide synthase to generate lactosylceramide, which in turn activates "oxygen-sensitive" signalling pathways that affect such cellular processes as proliferation, adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Dysfunctions in these pathways can affect several diseases of the cardiovascular system, cancer and inflammatory states, so lactosylceramide metabolism is a potential target for new therapeutic treatments. beta-D-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide is the second to last step in the synthesis of N-Acylsphingosine and is converted. from Glucosylceramide via the enzyme beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 6(EC:2.4.1.-). It can be converted to Glucosylceramide via the enzyme beta-galactosidase (EC:3.2.1.23).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
LacCer(D18:1/16:0)ChEBI
N-(Hexadecanoyl)-1-b-lactosyl-sphing-4-enineChEBI
1-O-(4-O-b-D-Galactopyranosyl-b-D-glucopyranosyl)-ceramideHMDB
1-O-(4-O-beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranosyl)ceramideHMDB
1-O-(4-O-beta-delta-Galactopyranosyl-beta-delta-glucopyranosyl)-ceramideHMDB
1-O-(4-O-beta-delta-Galactopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranosyl)ceramideHMDB
1Ylce-O-(4-O-beta-delta-galactopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranosyl)ceramideHMDB
beta-D-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramideHMDB
beta-delta-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-delta-glucosramideHMDB
beta-delta-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-delta-glucosylceramideHMDB
CDHHMDB
CDW17 AntigenHMDB
Cytopylin HHMDB
D-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramideHMDB
delta-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-delta-glucosylceramideHMDB
Gal-beta1->4GLC-beta1->1'cerHMDB
LacCerHMDB
Lactosyl ceramide (D18:1/16:0)HMDB
Lactosyl-N-acylsphingosineHMDB
LactosylceramideHMDB
N-(Hexadecanoyl)-1-beta-lactosyl-sphing-4-enineHMDB
N-Lignoceryl sphingosyl lactosideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC46H87NO13
Average Molecular Weight862.1819
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight861.617741875
IUPAC NameN-[(2S,3R,4E)-1-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-{[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxyoctadec-4-en-2-yl]hexadecanamide
Traditional NameN-[(2S,3R,4E)-1-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-{[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxyoctadec-4-en-2-yl]hexadecanamide
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
[H][C@@](CO[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[C@@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]2O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O)(NC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC)[C@]([H])(O)\C=C\CCCCCCCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C46H87NO13/c1-3-5-7-9-11-13-15-17-19-21-23-25-27-29-35(50)34(47-38(51)30-28-26-24-22-20-18-16-14-12-10-8-6-4-2)33-57-45-43(56)41(54)44(37(32-49)59-45)60-46-42(55)40(53)39(52)36(31-48)58-46/h27,29,34-37,39-46,48-50,52-56H,3-26,28,30-33H2,1-2H3,(H,47,51)/b29-27+/t34-,35+,36+,37+,39-,40-,41+,42+,43+,44+,45+,46-/m0/s1
InChI KeyHLIJNIKSBCIDGO-QKLMXXKVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as glycosyl-n-acylsphingosines. These are compounds containing a sphingosine linked to a simple glucosyl moiety.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
Sub ClassSphingolipids
Direct ParentGlycosyl-N-acylsphingosines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glycosyl-n-acylsphingosine
  • Fatty acyl glycoside
  • Fatty acyl glycoside of mono- or disaccharide
  • Alkyl glycoside
  • Disaccharide
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Oxane
  • Fatty acyl
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Acetal
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
  • beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-N-acylsphingosine (CHEBI:84758 )
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Cell and elements:

Source:

  Biological:

    Animal:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Cellular process:

    Chemical reaction:

    Biochemical process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Role

Industrial application:

  Food and nutrition:

Biological role:

  Molecular messenger:

Physiological effect

Organoleptic effect:

  Touch:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.012 g/LALOGPS
logP5.81ALOGPS
logP7.32ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.92ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count13ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count9ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area227.86 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count36ChemAxon
Refractivity230.6 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability103.31 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0gwf-0020037290-21dca1ca5fd13c57f9d9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0089-0140259220-32ec01568647af1e8a9bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-1590725520-ad1444f1d366d916d1a3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03dl-0311045190-e794a5691906a48c5dcbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0fhd-2412229030-6bae8d2533cd960334a2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0h00-4910122000-20bac4f86c3c31786972View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB024055
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID24765743
KEGG Compound IDC01290
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound53477895
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID84758
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 72 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in galactosylceramidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the galactose ester bonds of galactosylceramide, galactosylsphingosine, lactosylceramide, and monogalactosyldiglyceride. Enzyme with very low activity responsible for the lysosomal catabolism of galactosylceramide, a major lipid in myelin, kidney and epithelial cells of small intestine and colon.
Gene Name:
GALC
Uniprot ID:
P54803
Molecular weight:
77062.86
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes sialylated compounds.
Gene Name:
NEU2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y3R4
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
May function in lysosomal catabolism of sialylated glycoconjugates. Has sialidase activity towards synthetic substrates, such as 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4-MU-NANA or 4MU-NeuAc). Has a broad substrate specificity being active on glycoproteins, oligosaccharides and sialylated glycolipids.
Gene Name:
NEU4
Uniprot ID:
Q8WWR8
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the removal of sialic acid (N-acetylneuramic acid) moities from glycoproteins and glycolipids. To be active, it is strictly dependent on its presence in the multienzyme complex. Appears to have a preference for alpha 2-3 and alpha 2-6 sialyl linkage.
Gene Name:
NEU1
Uniprot ID:
Q99519
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLA
Uniprot ID:
P06280
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in sialyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of ganglioside GM3 (alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1, 4-beta-D-glucosylceramide).
Gene Name:
ST3GAL5
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNP4
Molecular weight:
45584.69
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activities toward 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphocholine and 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphoglycerol. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have lost catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
SMPD1
Uniprot ID:
P17405
Molecular weight:
69935.53

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 72 proteins in total.