You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2008-09-26 14:11:46 UTC
Update Date2013-05-21 22:46:12 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB10710
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGalactosylceramide (d18:1/20:0)
DescriptionGalactosylceramides (GalCer) are non-acidic monoglycosphingolipids, i.e. a sphingolipid with one carbohydrate moiety attached to a ceramide unit. They are an intermediate in sphingolipid metabolism and is the second to last step in the synthesis of digalactosylceramidesulfate. GalCer is generated from ceramide via the enzyme UDP-galactose ceramide galactosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.47]. It can be converted to digalactosylceramide via the enzyme glycosyltransferases [EC 2.4.1.-]. Galactosylceramide is the principal glycosphingolipid in brain tissue, hence the trivial name "cerebroside", which was first conferred on it in 1874. Galactosylceramides are found in all nervous tissues, but they can amount to 2% of the dry weight of grey matter and 12% of white matter. They are major constituents of oligodendrocytes. Synthesis of galactosylceramide takes place on the lumenal surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, although it has free access to the cytosolic surface by an energy-independent flip-flop process. GalCer sits in the extracellular leaflet of cell membranes in nanometer sized domains or rafts. The local clustering of GalCer within rafts is thought to facilitate the initial adhesion of certain viruses, including HIV-1 and bacteria to cells through multivalent interactions between receptor proteins and GalCer. A defect in the degradation of cerbrosides leads to a disorder called Krabbe disease. Krabbe disease (also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy or galactosylceramide lipidosis) is a rare, often fatal degenerative disorder that affects the myelin sheath of the nervous system. Krabbe disease is caused by mutations in the GALC gene, which causes a deficiency of galactosylceramidase. Infants with Krabbe disease are normal at birth. Symptoms begin between the ages of 3 and 6 months with irritability, fevers, limb stiffness, seizures, feeding difficulties, vomiting, and slowing of mental and motor development. There are also juvenile- and adult-onset cases of Krabbe disease, which have similar symptoms but slower progression. In infants, the disease is generally fatal before age 2. Patients with late-onset Krabbe disease tend to have a slower progression of the disease and live significantly longer.Cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and gangliosides. Cerebrosides have a single sugar group linked to ceramide. The most common are galactocerebrosides (containing galactose), the least common are glucocerebrosides (containing glucose). Galactocerebrosides are found predominantly in neuronal cell membranes. In contrast glucocerebrosides are not normally found in membranes. Instead, they are typically intermediates in the synthesis or degradation of more complex glycosphingolipids. Galactocerebrosides are synthesized from ceramide and UDP-galactose. Excess lysosomal accumulation of glucocerebrosides is found in Gaucher disease.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. a-GalCer
  2. alpha-GalCer
  3. Cerebroside
  4. D-Galactosyl-N-acylsphingosine
  5. D-Galactosylceramide
  6. delta-Galactosyl-N-acylsphingosine
  7. delta-Galactosylceramide
  8. Gal-b-Cer
  9. Gal-beta-1-1'Cer
  10. Gal-beta-Cer
  11. Galactocerebroside
  12. Galactosylceramide
  13. GalCer
  14. N-(Eicosanoyl)-1-b-galactosyl-sphing-4-enine
  15. N-(Eicosanoyl)-1-beta-galactosyl-sphing-4-enine
Chemical FormulaC44H85NO8
Average Molecular Weight756.1476
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight755.627518701
IUPAC NameN-[(4Z)-3-hydroxy-1-{[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}octadec-4-en-2-yl]icosanamide
Traditional IUPAC NameN-[(4Z)-3-hydroxy-1-{[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}octadec-4-en-2-yl]icosanamide
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)NC(CO[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O)C(O)\C=C/CCCCCCCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C44H85NO8/c1-3-5-7-9-11-13-15-17-18-19-20-22-24-26-28-30-32-34-40(48)45-37(36-52-44-43(51)42(50)41(49)39(35-46)53-44)38(47)33-31-29-27-25-23-21-16-14-12-10-8-6-4-2/h31,33,37-39,41-44,46-47,49-51H,3-30,32,34-36H2,1-2H3,(H,45,48)/b33-31-/t37?,38?,39-,41+,42+,43-,44-/m1/s1
InChI KeyDFELABABMXOKTD-RBULGSFCSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassSphingolipids
Sub ClassNeutral Glycosphingolipids
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Heteromonocyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Acetal
  • Alkyl Glycoside
  • Allyl Alcohol
  • Carboxamide Group
  • Ceramide
  • Fatty Acyl Glycoside
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Hexose Monosaccharide
  • N Acyl Amine
  • O Glycosyl Compound
  • Oxane
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Saccharide
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amide
Direct ParentSimple Glycosylceramides
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Energy source
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.730E-04 g/LALOGPS
logP8.5ALOGPS
logP10.87ChemAxon
logS-6.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.18ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.019ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area148.71ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count37ChemAxon
Refractivity216.59ChemAxon
Polarizability96.51ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB027860
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID24765746
KEGG Compound IDC02686
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB10710
Metagene LinkHMDB10710
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound53480654
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Wang J, Guillaume J, Pauwels N, Van Calenbergh S, Van Rhijn I, Zajonc DM: Crystal structures of bovine CD1d reveal altered alphaGalCer presentation and a restricted A' pocket unable to bind long-chain glycolipids. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47989. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047989. Epub 2012 Oct 23. Pubmed: 23110152
  2. Okamoto Y, Fujikawa A, Kurosaki M, Yamasaki K, Sakurai D, Horiguchi S, Nakayama T: Nasal submucosal administration of antigen-presenting cells induces effective immunological responses in cancer immunotherapy. Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;72:149-52. doi: 10.1159/000324775. Epub 2011 Aug 18. Pubmed: 21865716
  3. Lopez-Sagaseta J, Kung JE, Savage PB, Gumperz J, Adams EJ: The molecular basis for recognition of CD1d/alpha-galactosylceramide by a human non-Valpha24 T cell receptor. PLoS Biol. 2012;10(10):e1001412. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001412. Epub 2012 Oct 23. Pubmed: 23109910
  4. Tonti E, Fedeli M, Napolitano A, Iannacone M, von Andrian UH, Guidotti LG, Abrignani S, Casorati G, Dellabona P: Follicular helper NKT cells induce limited B cell responses and germinal center formation in the absence of CD4(+) T cell help. J Immunol. 2012 Apr 1;188(7):3217-22. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1103501. Epub 2012 Feb 29. Pubmed: 22379027
  5. Freigang S, Landais E, Zadorozhny V, Kain L, Yoshida K, Liu Y, Deng S, Palinski W, Savage PB, Bendelac A, Teyton L: Scavenger receptors target glycolipids for natural killer T cell activation. J Clin Invest. 2012 Nov 1;122(11):3943-54. doi: 10.1172/JCI62267. Epub 2012 Oct 15. Pubmed: 23064364
  6. Yang JQ, Kim PJ, Singh RR: Brief treatment with iNKT cell ligand alpha-galactosylceramide confers a long-term protection against lupus. J Clin Immunol. 2012 Feb;32(1):106-13. doi: 10.1007/s10875-011-9590-y. Epub 2011 Oct 15. Pubmed: 22002593
  7. Patel O, Pellicci DG, Uldrich AP, Sullivan LC, Bhati M, McKnight M, Richardson SK, Howell AR, Mallevaey T, Zhang J, Bedel R, Besra GS, Brooks AG, Kjer-Nielsen L, McCluskey J, Porcelli SA, Gapin L, Rossjohn J, Godfrey DI: Vbeta2 natural killer T cell antigen receptor-mediated recognition of CD1d-glycolipid antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 22;108(47):19007-12. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1109066108. Epub 2011 Nov 7. Pubmed: 22065767
  8. Detre C, Keszei M, Garrido-Mesa N, Kis-Toth K, Castro W, Agyemang AF, Veerapen N, Besra GS, Carroll MC, Tsokos GC, Wang N, Leadbetter EA, Terhorst C: SAP expression in invariant NKT cells is required for cognate help to support B-cell responses. Blood. 2012 Jul 5;120(1):122-9. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-11-395913. Epub 2012 May 21. Pubmed: 22613797
  9. Tyznik AJ, Farber E, Girardi E, Birkholz A, Li Y, Chitale S, So R, Arora P, Khurana A, Wang J, Porcelli SA, Zajonc DM, Kronenberg M, Howell AR: Glycolipids that elicit IFN-gamma-biased responses from natural killer T cells. Chem Biol. 2011 Dec 23;18(12):1620-30. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2011.10.015. Pubmed: 22195564
  10. Nagy L: Would eating carrots protect your liver? A new role involving NKT cells for retinoic acid in hepatitis. Eur J Immunol. 2012 Jul;42(7):1677-80. doi: 10.1002/eji.201242705. Pubmed: 22806070
  11. Choi DH, Kim KS, Yang SH, Chung DH, Song B, Sprent J, Cho JH, Sung YC: Dendritic cell internalization of alpha-galactosylceramide from CD8 T cells induces potent antitumor CD8 T-cell responses. Cancer Res. 2011 Dec 15;71(24):7442-51. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-1459. Epub 2011 Oct 25. Pubmed: 22028323
  12. Yu ED, Girardi E, Wang J, Mac TT, Yu KO, Van Calenbergh S, Porcelli SA, Zajonc DM: Structural basis for the recognition of C20:2-alphaGalCer by the invariant natural killer T cell receptor-like antibody L363. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 6;287(2):1269-78. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.308783. Epub 2011 Nov 22. Pubmed: 22110136
  13. Kim YJ, Han SH, Kang HW, Lee JM, Kim YS, Seo JH, Seong YK, Ko HJ, Choi TH, Moon C, Kang CY: NKT ligand-loaded, antigen-expressing B cells function as long-lasting antigen presenting cells in vivo. Cell Immunol. 2011;270(2):135-44. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2011.04.006. Epub 2011 Apr 22. Pubmed: 21741036
  14. Chen Q, Ross AC: All-trans-retinoic acid and the glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide combined reduce breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in a 4T1 murine breast tumor model. Nutr Cancer. 2012;64(8):1219-27. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2012.718404. Pubmed: 23163850

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 70 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in galactosylceramidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the galactose ester bonds of galactosylceramide, galactosylsphingosine, lactosylceramide, and monogalactosyldiglyceride. Enzyme with very low activity responsible for the lysosomal catabolism of galactosylceramide, a major lipid in myelin, kidney and epithelial cells of small intestine and colon.
Gene Name:
GALC
Uniprot ID:
P54803
Molecular weight:
77062.86
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ARSD
Uniprot ID:
P51689
Molecular weight:
64859.3
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes sialylated compounds.
Gene Name:
NEU2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y3R4
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in galactosylceramide sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the sulfation of membrane glycolipids. Seems to prefer beta-glycosides at the non-reducing termini of sugar chains attached to a lipid moiety. Catalyzes the synthesis of galactosylceramide sulfate (sulfatide), a major lipid component of the myelin sheath and of monogalactosylalkylacylglycerol sulfate (seminolipid), present in spermatocytes (By similarity). Also acts on lactosylceramide, galactosyl 1-alkyl-2-sn-glycerol and galactosyl diacylglycerol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
GAL3ST1
Uniprot ID:
Q99999
Molecular weight:
48763.63
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes cerebroside sulfate.
Gene Name:
ARSA
Uniprot ID:
P15289
Molecular weight:
53805.87
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
May function in lysosomal catabolism of sialylated glycoconjugates. Has sialidase activity towards synthetic substrates, such as 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4-MU-NANA or 4MU-NeuAc). Has a broad substrate specificity being active on glycoproteins, oligosaccharides and sialylated glycolipids.
Gene Name:
NEU4
Uniprot ID:
Q8WWR8
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
May be essential for the correct composition of cartilage and bone matrix during development. Has no activity toward steroid sulfates
Gene Name:
ARSE
Uniprot ID:
P51690
Molecular weight:
65668.4
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLA
Uniprot ID:
P06280
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activities toward 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphocholine and 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphoglycerol. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have lost catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
SMPD1
Uniprot ID:
P17405
Molecular weight:
69935.53
General function:
Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first glycosylation step in glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, the transfer of glucose to ceramide. May also serve as a "flippase".
Gene Name:
UGCG
Uniprot ID:
Q16739
Molecular weight:
44853.255
General function:
Involved in galactosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Necessary for the biosynthesis of the Pk antigen of blood histogroup P. Catalyzes the transfer of galactose to lactosylceramide and galactosylceramide. Necessary for the synthesis of the receptor for bacterial verotoxins.
Gene Name:
A4GALT
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPC4
Molecular weight:
40498.78
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRB3
Molecular weight:
65343.25
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Necessary for the synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol, the very early intermediate in GPI-anchor biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGA
Uniprot ID:
P37287
Molecular weight:
54126.065
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGH
Uniprot ID:
Q14442
Molecular weight:
21080.415
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGP
Uniprot ID:
P57054
Molecular weight:
18089.055
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGC
Uniprot ID:
Q92535
Molecular weight:
33582.18
General function:
Involved in lipid metabolic process
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the sphingolipid ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acid.
Gene Name:
ASAH1
Uniprot ID:
Q13510
Molecular weight:
44045.27
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activity toward palmitoyl lyso-phosphocholine. Does not appear to have nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity.
Gene Name:
ENPP7
Uniprot ID:
Q6UWV6
Molecular weight:
51493.415
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Hydrolyze 1-acyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PC) and 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-platelet-activating factor). The physiological substrate seems to be Lyso-PAF.
Gene Name:
SMPD2
Uniprot ID:
O60906
Molecular weight:
47645.29
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of galactose to ceramide, a key enzymatic step in the biosynthesis of galactocerebrosides, which are abundant sphingolipids of the myelin membrane of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
Gene Name:
UGT8
Uniprot ID:
Q16880
Molecular weight:
61455.31
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
May mediate the intracellular trafficking of ceramide in a non-vesicular manner
Gene Name:
COL4A3BP
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5P4
Molecular weight:
70834.4
General function:
Involved in sphingolipid activator protein activity
Specific function:
Binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3
Gene Name:
GM2A
Uniprot ID:
P17900
Molecular weight:
20838.1
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GBA
Uniprot ID:
P04062
Molecular weight:
59715.745
General function:
Involved in immune response
Specific function:
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. The membrane-associated form is not active
Gene Name:
CD1E
Uniprot ID:
P15812
Molecular weight:
43626.1
General function:
Involved in cholesterol binding
Specific function:
May be involved in the regulation of the lipid composition of sperm membranes during the maturation in the epididymis
Gene Name:
NPC2
Uniprot ID:
P61916
Molecular weight:
16570.1
General function:
Involved in sphingosine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
May be either a bona fide (dihydro)ceramide synthase or a modulator of its activity. When overexpressed in cells is involved in the production of sphingolipids containing mainly one fatty acid donor (N-linked stearoyl- (C18) ceramide) in a fumonisin B1-independent manner (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CERS1
Uniprot ID:
P27544
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in immune response
Specific function:
Antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self glycolipids and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells
Gene Name:
CD1D
Uniprot ID:
P15813
Molecular weight:
37717.0
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers the first alpha-1,4-mannose to GlcN-acyl-PI during GPI precursor assembly
Gene Name:
PIGM
Uniprot ID:
Q9H3S5
Molecular weight:
49459.2
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific function:
Probable acetyltransferase, which acetylates the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol during biosynthesis of GPI-anchor. Acetylation during GPI-anchor biosynthesis is not essential for the subsequent mannosylation and is usually removed soon after the attachment of GPIs to proteins (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PIGW
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z7B1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Essential component of glycosylphosphatidylinositol- mannosyltransferase 1 which transfers the first of the 4 mannoses in the GPI-anchor precursors during GPI-anchor biosynthesis. Probably acts by stabilizing the mannosyltransferase PIGM
Gene Name:
PIGX
Uniprot ID:
Q8TBF5
Molecular weight:
28788.1
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
Mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers a fourth mannose to some trimannosyl-GPIs during GPI precursor assembly. The presence of a fourth mannose in GPI is facultative and only scarcely detected, suggesting that it only exists in some tissues
Gene Name:
PIGZ
Uniprot ID:
Q86VD9
Molecular weight:
63472.6
General function:
Involved in galactosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that plays a key role in the synthesis of lacto- or neolacto-series carbohydrate chains on glycolipids, notably by participating in biosynthesis of HNK-1 and Lewis X carbohydrate structures. Has strong activity toward lactosylceramide (LacCer) and neolactotetraosylceramide (nLc(4)Cer; paragloboside), resulting in the synthesis of Lc(3)Cer and neolactopentaosylceramide (nLc(5)Cer), respectively. Probably plays a central role in regulating neolacto-series glycolipid synthesis during embryonic development.
Gene Name:
B3GNT5
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYG0
Molecular weight:
44052.295
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to form ceramide and phosphocholine. Ceramide mediates numerous cellular functions, such as apoptosis and growth arrest, and is capable of regulating these 2 cellular events independently. Also hydrolyzes sphingosylphosphocholine. Regulates the cell cycle by acting as a growth suppressor in confluent cells. Probably acts as a regulator of postnatal development and participates in bone and dentin mineralization.
Gene Name:
SMPD3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY59
Molecular weight:
71080.1
General function:
Involved in galactosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of Gal to GlcNAc-based acceptors with a preference for the core3 O-linked glycan GlcNAc(beta1,3)GalNAc structure. Can use glycolipid LC3Cer as an efficient acceptor
Gene Name:
B3GALT5
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2C3
Molecular weight:
36188.9
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
Required for the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids.
Gene Name:
B4GALT6
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBX8
Molecular weight:
44913.315
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
Mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers the third alpha-1,2-mannose to Man2-GlcN-acyl-PI during GPI precursor assembly
Gene Name:
PIGB
Uniprot ID:
Q92521
Molecular weight:
65055.9
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Involved in GPI-anchor biosynthesis through the transfer of ethanolamine phosphate to the third mannose of GPI
Gene Name:
PIGF
Uniprot ID:
Q07326
Molecular weight:
24889.3
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Ethanolamine phosphate transferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers ethanolamine phosphate to the GPI second mannose
Gene Name:
PIGG
Uniprot ID:
Q5H8A4
Molecular weight:
108171.7
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Ethanolamine phosphate transferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers ethanolamine phosphate to the first alpha-1,4-linked mannose of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol precursor of GPI-anchor
Gene Name:
PIGN
Uniprot ID:
O95427
Molecular weight:
105809.2
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Ethanolamine phosphate transferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers ethanolamine phosphate to the GPI third mannose which links the GPI-anchor to the C-terminus of the proteins by an amide bond
Gene Name:
PIGO
Uniprot ID:
Q8TEQ8
Molecular weight:
118697.6
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Component of the GPI transamidase complex. Essential for transfer of GPI to proteins, particularly for formation of carbonyl intermediates
Gene Name:
PIGS
Uniprot ID:
Q96S52
Molecular weight:
61655.5
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Component of the GPI transamidase complex. Essential for transfer of GPI to proteins, particularly for formation of carbonyl intermediates
Gene Name:
PIGT
Uniprot ID:
Q969N2
Molecular weight:
65699.0
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Component of the GPI transamidase complex. May be involved in the recognition of either the GPI attachment signal or the lipid portion of GPI
Gene Name:
PIGU
Uniprot ID:
Q9H490
Molecular weight:
50051.2
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers the second mannose to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol during GPI precursor assembly
Gene Name:
PIGV
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUD9
Molecular weight:
55712.1
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Component of the GPI-GlcNAc transferase (GPI-GnT) complex in the endoplasmic reticulum, a complex that catalyzes transfer of GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc to an acceptor phosphatidylinositol, the first step in the production of GPI- anchors for cell surface proteins. May act by regulating the catalytic subunit PIGA
Gene Name:
PIGY
Uniprot ID:
Q3MUY2
Molecular weight:
8057.5
General function:
Involved in glycolipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in TGN-to-plasma membrane transport and in the formation of post-Golgi constitutive carriers. May play a role in ensuring the coordination of the budding and the fission reactions
Gene Name:
PLEKHA8
Uniprot ID:
Q96JA3
Molecular weight:
58306.0
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin to form phosphorylcholine and ceramide.
Gene Name:
SMPD4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NXE4
Molecular weight:
86192.575
General function:
Involved in ceramidase activity
Specific function:
May hydrolyze the sphingolipid ceramide into sphingosine and free fatty acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ASAH2C
Uniprot ID:
P0C7U2
Molecular weight:
Not Available

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 70 proteins in total.