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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2009-02-19 23:38:51 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 02:32:12 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0011694
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB11694
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSM(d16:1/24:1(15Z))
DescriptionSphingomyelin (d16:1/24:1(15Z)) or SM(d16:1/24:1(15Z)) is a sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelin (SM or SPH) is a type of sphingolipid found in animal cell membranes, especially in the membranous myelin sheath which surrounds some nerve cell axons. It usually consists of phosphorylcholine and ceramide. In humans, sphingomyelin is the only membrane phospholipid not derived from glycerol. Like all sphingolipids, SPH has a ceramide core (sphingosine bonded to a fatty acid via an amide linkage). In addition it contains one polar head group, which is either phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine. The plasma membrane of cells is highly enriched in sphingomyelin and is considered largely to be found in the exoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane. However, there is some evidence that there may also be a sphingomyelin pool in the inner leaflet of the membrane. Moreover, neutral sphingomyelinase-2 - an enzyme that breaks down sphingomyelin into ceramide has been found to localise exclusively to the inner leaflet further suggesting that there may be sphingomyelin present there. Sphingomyelin can accumulate in a rare hereditary disease called Niemann-Pick Disease, types A and B. Niemann-Pick disease is a genetically-inherited disease caused by a deficiency in the enzyme Sphingomyelinase, which causes the accumulation of Sphingomyelin in spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow, and the brain, causing irreversible neurological damage. SMs play a role in signal transduction. Sphingomyelins are synthesized by the transfer of phosphorylcholine from phosphatidylcholine to a ceramide in a reaction catalyzed by sphingomyelin synthase.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
SPH(D16:1/24:1(15Z))HMDB
Sphingomyelin (D16:1/24:1(15Z))HMDB
Chemical FormulaC45H90N2O6P
Average Molecular Weight786.1797
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight785.653650134
IUPAC Name{[(2S,3R,4E)-3-hydroxy-2-[(15Z)-tetracos-15-enamido]hexadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy}[2-(trimethylazaniumyl)ethoxy]phosphinic acid
Traditional Name[(2S,3R,4E)-3-hydroxy-2-[(15Z)-tetracos-15-enamido]hexadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy(2-(trimethylammonio)ethoxy)phosphinic acid
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCC\C=C\[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(COP(O)(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C)NC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCCCC\C=C/CCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C45H89N2O6P/c1-6-8-10-12-14-16-18-19-20-21-22-23-24-25-26-27-29-31-33-35-37-39-45(49)46-43(42-53-54(50,51)52-41-40-47(3,4)5)44(48)38-36-34-32-30-28-17-15-13-11-9-7-2/h19-20,36,38,43-44,48H,6-18,21-35,37,39-42H2,1-5H3,(H-,46,49,50,51)/p+1/b20-19-,38-36+/t43-,44+/m0/s1
InChI KeyFOULCGVQZYQEQM-DNXGLLHMSA-O
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as sphingomyelins. These are sphingolipids containing a backbone formed of an alcohol - sphingosine, a phosphate group, a choline and fatty acid chain.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
Sub ClassSphingolipids
Direct ParentSphingomyelins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Ceramide phosphocholine
  • Phosphocholine
  • Phosphoethanolamine
  • Dialkyl phosphate
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Fatty acyl
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic cation
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Tissue and substructures:

  Organ and components:

  System:

  Cell and elements:

Source:

  Biological:

    Animal:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

  Food and nutrition:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Cellular process:

    Biochemical pathway:

    Chemical reaction:

    Biochemical process:

Physiological effect

Organoleptic effect:

  Touch:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.5e-05 g/LALOGPS
logP6.01ALOGPS
logP10.37ChemAxon
logS-7.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.87ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.012ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area105.09 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count41ChemAxon
Refractivity243.79 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability99.96 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0f80-9022476800-6ae3e872b5cf28f2c8a7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0uei-4383294000-3976379cfa15ec7c3cb8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uki-9276001100-7b608efecc42494f8443View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified15.7 +/- 0.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified57.1 +/- 11.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB028380
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID24768059
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound52931202
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID89233
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Ding J, Sorensen CM, Jaitly N, Jiang H, Orton DJ, Monroe ME, Moore RJ, Smith RD, Metz TO: Application of the accurate mass and time tag approach in studies of the human blood lipidome. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008 Aug 15;871(2):243-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.04.040. Epub 2008 May 7. [PubMed:18502191 ]
  2. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  3. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  4. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  5. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  6. Divecha N, Irvine RF: Phospholipid signaling. Cell. 1995 Jan 27;80(2):269-78. [PubMed:7834746 ]
  7. Ghosh S, Strum JC, Bell RM: Lipid biochemistry: functions of glycerolipids and sphingolipids in cellular signaling. FASEB J. 1997 Jan;11(1):45-50. [PubMed:9034165 ]
  8. Hannun YA: The sphingomyelin cycle and the second messenger function of ceramide. J Biol Chem. 1994 Feb 4;269(5):3125-8. [PubMed:8106344 ]
  9. Cevc, Gregor (1993). Phospholipids Handbook. Marcel Dekker.
  10. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 50 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activities toward 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphocholine and 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphoglycerol. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have lost catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
SMPD1
Uniprot ID:
P17405
Molecular weight:
69935.53
General function:
Involved in galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the biosynthesis of L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope on glycoproteins. Can also play a role in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Substrates include asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR), asialo-fetuin, and asialo-neural cell adhesion molecule. Requires sphingomyelin for activity: stearoyl-sphingomyelin was the most effective, followed by palmitoyl-sphingomyelin and lignoceroyl-sphingomyelin. Activity was demonstrated only for sphingomyelin with a saturated fatty acid and not for that with an unsaturated fatty acid, regardless of the length of the acyl group (By similarity).
Gene Name:
B3GAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9P2W7
Molecular weight:
38255.675
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRB3
Molecular weight:
65343.25
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Necessary for the synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol, the very early intermediate in GPI-anchor biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGA
Uniprot ID:
P37287
Molecular weight:
54126.065
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGH
Uniprot ID:
Q14442
Molecular weight:
21080.415
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGP
Uniprot ID:
P57054
Molecular weight:
18089.055
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGC
Uniprot ID:
Q92535
Molecular weight:
33582.18
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activity toward palmitoyl lyso-phosphocholine. Does not appear to have nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity.
Gene Name:
ENPP7
Uniprot ID:
Q6UWV6
Molecular weight:
51493.415

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 50 proteins in total.