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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2009-03-03 12:04:46 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:22:11 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB11745
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameN-Acetyl-L-methionine
DescriptionN-acetyl-L-methionine is nutritionally and metabolically equivalent to L-methionine. Methionine is a dietary indispensable amino acid required for normal growth and development of humans, other mammals, and avian species. In addition to being a substrate for protein synthesis, it is an intermediate in transmethylation reactions, serving as the major methyl group donor in vivo, including the methyl groups for DNA and RNA intermediates. Methionine is a methyl acceptor for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyl transferase (methionine synthase), the only reaction that allows for the recycling of this form of folate, and is also a methyl acceptor for the catabolism of betaine. Methionine is also required for synthesis of cysteine. Methionine is accepted as the metabolic precursor for cysteine. Only the sulfur atom from methionine is transferred to cysteine; the carbon skeleton of cysteine is donated by serine. (PMID 16702340 ). The adequacy range of dietary requirements of specific amino acids in disease states is difficult to determine. Requirements may not be similar in disease with regard to protein synthesis. Requirements for this purpose can be assessed only when such a function can be measured and related to clinical outcome. There is apparent consensus concerning normal sulfur amino acid (SAA) requirements. WHO recommendations amount to 13 mg/kg per 24 h in healthy adults. This amount is roughly doubled in artificial nutrition regimens. In disease or after trauma, requirements may be altered for methionine, cysteine, and taurine. Although in specific cases of congenital enzyme deficiency, prematurity, or diminished liver function, hypermethionemia or hyperhomocysteinemia may occur, SAA supplementation can be considered safe in amounts exceeding 2-3 times the minimal recommended daily intake. Apart from some very specific indications (e.g., acetaminophen poisoning) the usefulness of SAA supplementation is not yet established.(PMID 16702341 ). Methionine is known to exacerbate psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenic patients, there is no evidence of similar effects in healthy subjects. The role of methionine as a precursor of homocysteine is the most notable cause for concern. A "loading dose" of methionine (0.1 g/kg) has been given, and the resultant acute increase in plasma homocysteine has been used as an index of the susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. Although this procedure results in vascular dysfunction, this is acute and unlikely to result in permanent damage. However, a 10-fold larger dose, given mistakenly, resulted in death. Longer-term studies in adults have indicated no adverse consequences of moderate fluctuations in dietary methionine intake, but intakes higher than 5 times normal resulted in elevated homocysteine levels. These effects of methionine on homocysteine and vascular function are moderated by supplements of vitamins B-6, B-12, C, and folic acid. In infants, methionine intakes of 2 to 5 times normal resulted in impaired growth and extremely high plasma methionine levels, but no adverse long-term consequences were observed. (PMID 16702346 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Acetyl-L-methionineHMDB
AcetylmethioninHMDB
AcetylmethionineHMDB
DL-N-AcetylmethionineHMDB
L-(N-Acetyl)methionineHMDB
L-N-Acetyl-methionineHMDB
MethionamineHMDB
MethioninHMDB
N-Acetyl(methyl)homocysteineHMDB
N-Acetyl-methionineHMDB
N-Acetyl-S-methylhomocysteineHMDB
N-AcetylmethionineHMDB
ThiomedonHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H13NO3S
Average Molecular Weight191.248
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight191.061613977
IUPAC Name2-acetamido-4-(methylsulfanyl)butanoic acid
Traditional Nameacetyl-DL-methionine
CAS Registry Number65-82-7
SMILES
CSCCC(NC(C)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H13NO3S/c1-5(9)8-6(7(10)11)3-4-12-2/h6H,3-4H2,1-2H3,(H,8,9)(H,10,11)
InChI KeyInChIKey=XUYPXLNMDZIRQH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-acyl-aliphatic-alpha amino acids. These are alpha amino acids carrying a N-acylated aliphatic chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentN-acyl-aliphatic-alpha amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-acyl-aliphatic-alpha amino acid
  • Methionine or derivatives
  • Thia fatty acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Acetamide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Dialkylthioether
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Thioether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point105.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility307mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP-0.03MEYLAN,WM & HOWARD,PH (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.84 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.15ALOGPS
logP-0.11ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.02ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.4 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity47.03 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.59 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-006x-0900000000-e657a0db51c30ae3be19View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udl-1900000000-f56fad3e53b5ea9b2ecbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0002-9300000000-8202aca0e38266373acbView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Saliva
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01646
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001089
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5945
KEGG Compound IDC02712
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB11745
Metagene LinkHMDB11745
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound6180
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID165927
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Ball RO, Courtney-Martin G, Pencharz PB: The in vivo sparing of methionine by cysteine in sulfur amino acid requirements in animal models and adult humans. J Nutr. 2006 Jun;136(6 Suppl):1682S-1693S. [16702340 ]
  2. van de Poll MC, Dejong CH, Soeters PB: Adequate range for sulfur-containing amino acids and biomarkers for their excess: lessons from enteral and parenteral nutrition. J Nutr. 2006 Jun;136(6 Suppl):1694S-1700S. [16702341 ]
  3. Garlick PJ: Toxicity of methionine in humans. J Nutr. 2006 Jun;136(6 Suppl):1722S-1725S. [16702346 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Photoreceptor required for image-forming vision at low light intensity. Required for photoreceptor cell viability after birth. Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a conformational change leading to G-protein activation and release of all-trans retinal
Gene Name:
RHO
Uniprot ID:
P08100
Molecular weight:
38892.3
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6IB77
Molecular weight:
18506.33
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glutamine. Can use phenylacetyl-CoA as an acyl donor.
Gene Name:
GLYATL1
Uniprot ID:
Q969I3
Molecular weight:
35100.895
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine. Conjugates numerous substrates, such as arachidonoyl-CoA and saturated medium and long-chain acyl-CoAs ranging from chain-length C8:0-CoA to C18:0-CoA, to form a variety of N-acylglycines. Shows a preference for monounsaturated fatty acid oleoyl-CoA (C18:1-CoA) as an acyl donor. Does not exhibit any activity toward C22:6-CoA and chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA, nor toward serine or alanine.
Gene Name:
GLYATL2
Uniprot ID:
Q8WU03
Molecular weight:
34277.055