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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2009-03-24 16:18:57 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 02:33:42 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0011902
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB11902
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGanglioside GM2 (d18:0/22:1(13Z))
DescriptionGanglioside GM2 (d18:0/22:1(13Z)) is a ganglioside. A ganglioside is a compound composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (AKA n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain. The 60+ known gangliosides differ mainly in the position and number of NANA residues. It is a component of the cell plasma membrane that modulates cell signal transduction events. It appears that they concentrate in lipid rafts. They have recently been found to be highly important in immunology. Natural and semisynthetic gangliosides are considered possible therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. Gangliosides are more complex glycosphingolipids in which oligosaccharide chains containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) are attached to a ceramide. NeuNAc, an acetylated derivative of the carbohydrate sialic acid, makes the head groups of Gangliosides anionic. NB: the M in GM2 stands for monosialo, i.e., one NeuNAc residue. GM2 is the second monosialo ganglioside characterized, thus the subscript 2. Their structural diversity results from variation in the composition and sequence of the sugar residues. In all Gangliosides, the ceramide is linked through its C-1 to a beta-glucosyl residue, which, in turn, is bound to a beta-galactosyl residue. (Wikipedia) Particularly, Ganglioside GM2 (d18:0/22:1(13Z)) is a GM2 ganglioside. A glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. It is a component the cell plasma membrane which modulates cell signal transduction events. Gangliosides have been found to be highly important in immunology. Ganglioside GM2 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids from brain, but they are found at low levels in all animal tissues. G(M2) Ganglioside accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in Gangliosidoses. Gangliosidoses include heredity metabolic disorders that include Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease. Gangliosides GM2 is especially common in the nervous tissue of the brain. In the United States, about 1 in 27 to 1 in 30 Ashkenazi Jews is a recessive carrier. French Canadians and the Cajun community of Louisiana have an occurrence similar to the Ashkenazi Jews.Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and gangliosides. Gangliosides are very similar to globosides except that they also contain N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) in varying amounts. The specific names for the gangliosides provide information about their structure. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, di-, tri and quatra-sialic acid. The numbered subscripts 1, 2 and 3 refer to the carbohydrate sequence that is attached to the ceramide. In particular, 1 stands for GalGalNAcGalGlc-ceramide, 2 stands for GalNAcGalGlc-ceramide and 3 stands for GalGlc-ceramide. Deficiencies in lysosomal enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate portions of various gangliosides are responsible for a number of lysosomal storage diseases such as Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, and GM1 gangliosidosis. The carbohydrate portion of the ganglioside GM1 is the site of attachment of cholera toxin, the protein secreted by Vibrio cholerae.
Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC72H130N2O26
Average Molecular Weight1439.8004
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1438.891182342
IUPAC Name(2S,4S,5R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6S)-3-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(2-oxopropyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-6-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-6-{[(2S,3R)-2-[(13Z)-docos-13-enamido]-3-hydroxyoctadecyl]oxy}-4,5-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy}-5-acetamido-4-hydroxy-6-[(1R,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]oxane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Name(2S,4S,5R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6S)-3-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(2-oxopropyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-6-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-6-{[(2S,3R)-2-[(13Z)-docos-13-enamido]-3-hydroxyoctadecyl]oxy}-4,5-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy}-5-acetamido-4-hydroxy-6-[(1R,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]oxane-2-carboxylic acid
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC[C@@H](O)[C@H](CO[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[C@@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O[C@@H]3O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]3CC(C)=O)[C@H](O[C@@]3(C[C@H](O)[C@@H](NC(C)=O)C(O3)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)CO)C(O)=O)[C@H]2O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O)NC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCC\C=C/CCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C72H130N2O26/c1-5-7-9-11-13-15-17-19-20-21-22-23-24-26-28-30-32-34-36-38-56(84)74-49(50(81)37-35-33-31-29-27-25-18-16-14-12-10-8-6-2)45-93-69-62(89)61(88)64(54(43-77)95-69)97-70-63(90)67(65(55(44-78)96-70)98-68-48(39-46(3)79)58(85)60(87)53(42-76)94-68)100-72(71(91)92)40-51(82)57(73-47(4)80)66(99-72)59(86)52(83)41-75/h19-20,48-55,57-70,75-78,81-83,85-90H,5-18,21-45H2,1-4H3,(H,73,80)(H,74,84)(H,91,92)/b20-19-/t48-,49+,50-,51+,52-,53-,54-,55-,57-,58-,59-,60+,61-,62-,63-,64-,65+,66?,67-,68+,69-,70+,72+/m1/s1
InChI KeyYPROBZXERNOAOI-OYTXENIOSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as glycosphingolipids. These are sphingolipids containing a saccharide moiety glycosidically attached to the sphingoid base. Although saccharide moieties are mostly O-glycosidically linked to the ceramide moiety, other sphingolipids with glycosidic bonds of other types (e.g. S-,C-, or N-type) has been reported.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
Sub ClassSphingolipids
Direct ParentGlycosphingolipids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glycosphingolipid
  • Oligosaccharide
  • N-acylneuraminic acid
  • N-acylneuraminic acid or derivatives
  • Neuraminic acid
  • Fatty acyl glycoside
  • C-glucuronide
  • Alkyl glycoside
  • Glycosyl compound
  • C-glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Ketal
  • Fatty amide
  • Fatty acyl
  • Pyran
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Oxane
  • Acetamide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Acetal
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Cell and elements:

Source:

  Biological:

    Animal:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Role

Biological role:

  Molecular messenger:

Industrial application:

  Food and nutrition:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Cellular process:

    Biochemical pathway:

    Chemical reaction:

    Biochemical process:

Physiological effect

Organoleptic effect:

  Touch:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.035 g/LALOGPS
logP3.8ALOGPS
logP6.39ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count26ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count16ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area449.4 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count54ChemAxon
Refractivity363.98 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability163.44 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB028571
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound53481178
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  2. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  3. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  4. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  5. Divecha N, Irvine RF: Phospholipid signaling. Cell. 1995 Jan 27;80(2):269-78. [PubMed:7834746 ]
  6. Ghosh S, Strum JC, Bell RM: Lipid biochemistry: functions of glycerolipids and sphingolipids in cellular signaling. FASEB J. 1997 Jan;11(1):45-50. [PubMed:9034165 ]
  7. Cevc, Gregor (1993). Phospholipids Handbook. Marcel Dekker.
  8. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 46 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in sialyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the production of gangliosides GD3 and GT3 from GM3; gangliosides are a subfamily of complex glycosphinglolipds that contain one or more residues of sialic acid.
Gene Name:
ST8SIA1
Uniprot ID:
Q92185
Molecular weight:
40518.655
References
  1. Kurz M, Brachvogel V, Matter H, Stengelin S, Thuring H, Kramer W: Insights into the bile acid transportation system: the human ileal lipid-binding protein-cholyltaurine complex and its comparison with homologous structures. Proteins. 2003 Feb 1;50(2):312-28. [PubMed:12486725 ]
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in modulating the ganglioside content of the lipid bilayer at the level of membrane-bound sialyl glycoconjugates
Gene Name:
NEU3
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQ49
Molecular weight:
48251.5
References
  1. Kurz M, Brachvogel V, Matter H, Stengelin S, Thuring H, Kramer W: Insights into the bile acid transportation system: the human ileal lipid-binding protein-cholyltaurine complex and its comparison with homologous structures. Proteins. 2003 Feb 1;50(2):312-28. [PubMed:12486725 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
General function:
Involved in sialyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of ganglioside GM3 (alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1, 4-beta-D-glucosylceramide).
Gene Name:
ST3GAL5
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNP4
Molecular weight:
45584.69
References
  1. Kurz M, Brachvogel V, Matter H, Stengelin S, Thuring H, Kramer W: Insights into the bile acid transportation system: the human ileal lipid-binding protein-cholyltaurine complex and its comparison with homologous structures. Proteins. 2003 Feb 1;50(2):312-28. [PubMed:12486725 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Involved in the biosynthesis of gangliosides GM2, GD2 and GA2.
Gene Name:
B4GALNT1
Uniprot ID:
Q00973
Molecular weight:
58881.78
References
  1. Kurz M, Brachvogel V, Matter H, Stengelin S, Thuring H, Kramer W: Insights into the bile acid transportation system: the human ileal lipid-binding protein-cholyltaurine complex and its comparison with homologous structures. Proteins. 2003 Feb 1;50(2):312-28. [PubMed:12486725 ]
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRB3
Molecular weight:
65343.25
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Necessary for the synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol, the very early intermediate in GPI-anchor biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGA
Uniprot ID:
P37287
Molecular weight:
54126.065
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGH
Uniprot ID:
Q14442
Molecular weight:
21080.415
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGP
Uniprot ID:
P57054
Molecular weight:
18089.055

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 46 proteins in total.