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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2009-03-24 16:20:54 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 02:34:41 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB12016
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGanglioside GT1c (d18:1/23:0)
DescriptionGanglioside GT1c (d18:1/23:0) is a ganglioside. A ganglioside is a compound composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (AKA n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain. The 60+ known gangliosides differ mainly in the position and number of NANA residues. It is a component of the cell plasma membrane that modulates cell signal transduction events. It appears that they concentrate in lipid rafts. They have recently been found to be highly important in immunology. Natural and semisynthetic gangliosides are considered possible therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. Gangliosides are more complex glycosphingolipids in which oligosaccharide chains containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) are attached to a ceramide. NeuNAc, an acetylated derivative of the carbohydrate sialic acid, makes the head groups of Gangliosides anionic. NB: the M in GM2 stands for monosialo, i.e., one NeuNAc residue. GM2 is the second monosialo ganglioside characterized, thus the subscript 2. Their structural diversity results from variation in the composition and sequence of the sugar residues. In all Gangliosides, the ceramide is linked through its C-1 to a beta-glucosyl residue, which, in turn, is bound to a beta-galactosyl residue. (Wikipedia) Particularly, Ganglioside GT1c (d18:1/23:0) is a GT1c ganglioside, a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. It is a component the cell plasma membrane which modulates cell signal transduction events. Gangliosides have been found to be highly important in immunology. Ganglioside GD3 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids from brain, but they are found at low levels in all animal tissues. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and gangliosides. Gangliosides are very similar to globosides except that they also contain N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) in varying amounts. The specific names for the gangliosides provide information about their structure. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, di-, tri and quatra-sialic acid. The numbered subscripts 1, 2 and 3 refer to the carbohydrate sequence that is attached to the ceramide. In particular, 1 stands for GalGalNAcGalGlc-ceramide, 2 stands for GalNAcGalGlc-ceramide and 3 stands for GalGlc-ceramide. Deficiencies in lysosomal enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate portions of various gangliosides are responsible for a number of lysosomal storage diseases such as Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, and GM1 gangliosidosis. The carbohydrate portion of the ganglioside GM1 is the site of attachment of cholera toxin, the protein secreted by Vibrio cholerae.
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC101H176N4O47
Average Molecular Weight2198.4767
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight2197.150488886
IUPAC Name(2S,4S,5R)-2-{[(1S,2R)-1-[(3R,4S,6S)-6-carboxy-6-{[(1S,2R)-1-[(3R,4S,6S)-6-carboxy-6-{[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-{[(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-2-tricosanamidooctadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy}-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxy-5-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-5-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(2-oxopropyl)-4-{[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy}-3-acetamido-4-hydroxyoxan-2-yl]-1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl]oxy}-3-acetamido-4-hydroxyoxan-2-yl]-1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl]oxy}-5-acetamido-4-hydroxy-6-[(1R,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]oxane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Name(2S,4S,5R)-2-{[(1S,2R)-1-[(3R,4S,6S)-6-carboxy-6-{[(1S,2R)-1-[(3R,4S,6S)-6-carboxy-6-{[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-{[(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-2-tricosanamidooctadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy}-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxy-5-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-5-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(2-oxopropyl)-4-{[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy}-3-acetamido-4-hydroxyoxan-2-yl]-1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl]oxy}-3-acetamido-4-hydroxyoxan-2-yl]-1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl]oxy}-5-acetamido-4-hydroxy-6-[(1R,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]oxane-2-carboxylic acid
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glycosphingolipids. These are sphingolipids containing a saccharide moiety glycosidically attached to the sphingoid base. Although saccharide moieties are mostly O-glycosidically linked to the ceramide moiety, other sphingolipids with glycosidic bonds of other types (e.g. S-,C-, or N-type) has been reported.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
Sub ClassGlycosphingolipids
Direct ParentGlycosphingolipids
Alternative Parents
  • Glycosphingolipid
  • N-acylneuraminic acid or derivatives
  • N-acylneuraminic acid
  • Neuraminic acid
  • Fatty acyl glycoside of mono- or disaccharide
  • Fatty acyl glycoside
  • Pyranoid amino acid
  • C-glucuronide
  • Amino sugar
  • Alkyl glycoside
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Disaccharide
  • C-glycosyl compound
  • Tricarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Pyran carboxylic acid
  • Pyran carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Amino saccharide
  • Fatty acyl
  • Pyran
  • Oxane
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty amide
  • Saccharide
  • Acetamide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Ketone
  • Carboxamide group
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

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Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.32 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.26ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count47ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count29ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area819.65 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count72ChemAxon
Refractivity521.38 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability233.79 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings7ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB028685
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem CompoundNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  2. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  3. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  4. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  5. Divecha N, Irvine RF: Phospholipid signaling. Cell. 1995 Jan 27;80(2):269-78. [PubMed:7834746 ]
  6. Ghosh S, Strum JC, Bell RM: Lipid biochemistry: functions of glycerolipids and sphingolipids in cellular signaling. FASEB J. 1997 Jan;11(1):45-50. [PubMed:9034165 ]
  7. Cevc, Gregor (1993). Phospholipids Handbook. Marcel Dekker.
  8. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 41 proteins in total.


General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
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Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
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General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
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Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Necessary for the synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol, the very early intermediate in GPI-anchor biosynthesis.
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General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
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Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
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Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
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Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
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General function:
Involved in sphingolipid activator protein activity
Specific function:
Binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3
Gene Name:
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General function:
Involved in immune response
Specific function:
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. The membrane-associated form is not active
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Involved in cholesterol binding
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May be involved in the regulation of the lipid composition of sperm membranes during the maturation in the epididymis
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Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 41 proteins in total.