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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2009-03-24 16:22:19 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 02:35:44 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0012097
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB12097
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSM(d18:1/14:0)
DescriptionSM(d18:1/14:0) is a sphingomyelin (SM). SM is a member of the compound class known as sphingolipids (SPs) which are found in cell membranes, particularly nerve cells and brain tissue. Sphingolipids are extremely versatile molecules that have functions controlling fundamental cellular processes such as cell division, differentiation, and cell death. A well-balanced SP metabolism is important for health. Moreover, an impaired SP metabolism are involved in many common human diseases such as diabetes, various cancers, microbial infections, Alzheimer’s disease, diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and other neurological syndromes. The biosynthesis and catabolism of sphingolipids involves a large number of intermediate metabolites where many different enzymes are involved. SM is the major sphingolipid in mammals it is found in animal cell membranes, especially in the membranous myelin sheath that surrounds some nerve cell axons. It usually consists of phosphocholine and ceramide, or a phosphoethanolamine head group. In humans, SM is the only membrane phospholipid not derived from glycerol. SM contains one polar head group, which is either phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine. The plasma membrane of cells is highly enriched in sphingomyelin and is considered largely to be found in the exoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane. SMs play a role in signal transduction. Sphingomyelins are synthesized by the transfer of phosphorylcholine from phosphatidylcholine to a ceramide in a reaction catalyzed by sphingomyelin synthase. This SM(d18:1/14:0), in particular, consists of an unsaturated 18-carbon aliphatic amine chain (sphingoid base) with a saturated tetradecanoyl side chain (fatty acid chain). In most mammalian SPs, 18 carbon sphingoid bases (d18:0, d18:1, and t18:0) are predominant.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
C14 SphingomyelinChEBI
N-(Myristoyl)sphing-4-enine-1-phosphocholineChEBI
N-(Tetradecanoyl)sphing-4-enine-1-phosphocholineChEBI
SM(32:1)ChEBI
Sphingomyelin (D18:1/14:0)ChEBI
N-(Tetradecanoyl)-sphing-4-enine-1-phosphocholineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC37H75N2O6P
Average Molecular Weight674.975
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight674.536274654
IUPAC Name(2-{[(2S,3R,4E)-3-hydroxy-2-tetradecanamidooctadec-4-en-1-yl phosphonato]oxy}ethyl)trimethylazanium
Traditional NameC14 sphingomyelin
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCC\C=C\[C@@H](O)[C@H](COP([O-])(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C)NC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C37H75N2O6P/c1-6-8-10-12-14-16-18-19-21-22-24-26-28-30-36(40)35(34-45-46(42,43)44-33-32-39(3,4)5)38-37(41)31-29-27-25-23-20-17-15-13-11-9-7-2/h28,30,35-36,40H,6-27,29,31-34H2,1-5H3,(H-,38,41,42,43)/b30-28+/t35-,36+/m0/s1
InChI KeyKYICBZWZQPCUMO-PSALXKTOSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as sphingomyelins. These are sphingolipids containing a backbone formed of an alcohol - sphingosine, a phosphate group, a choline and fatty acid chain.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
Sub ClassSphingolipids
Direct ParentSphingomyelins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Ceramide phosphocholine
  • Phosphocholine
  • Phosphoethanolamine
  • Dialkyl phosphate
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Fatty acyl
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organic salt
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Organ and components:

  System:

  Cell and elements:

Source:

  Biological:

    Animal:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

  Food and nutrition:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Cellular process:

    Biochemical pathway:

    Chemical reaction:

    Biochemical process:

Physiological effect

Organoleptic effect:

  Touch:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.8e-05 g/LALOGPS
logP4.7ALOGPS
logP7.18ChemAxon
logS-7.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.87ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.012ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area107.92 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count34ChemAxon
Refractivity204.74 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability84.17 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000i-6430794000-f7b0dea6fc236dc9a696View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-05ac-5020903000-e03f5677261c3ad0fe71View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-008c-2250900000-a4fd04db1457e7896765View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001r-9380131000-125a55b6585fee343beeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0000029000-3ba94c2150708c7eb063View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00fr-2062494000-711e8d520ef2bec4107bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9172200000-01696dac5bdd01bc7e14View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified9.17 +/- 0.18 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB028764
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID9608732
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound11433862
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID64486
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  2. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  3. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  4. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  5. Divecha N, Irvine RF: Phospholipid signaling. Cell. 1995 Jan 27;80(2):269-78. [PubMed:7834746 ]
  6. Ghosh S, Strum JC, Bell RM: Lipid biochemistry: functions of glycerolipids and sphingolipids in cellular signaling. FASEB J. 1997 Jan;11(1):45-50. [PubMed:9034165 ]
  7. Hannun YA: The sphingomyelin cycle and the second messenger function of ceramide. J Biol Chem. 1994 Feb 4;269(5):3125-8. [PubMed:8106344 ]
  8. Cevc, Gregor (1993). Phospholipids Handbook. Marcel Dekker.
  9. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 50 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activities toward 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphocholine and 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphoglycerol. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have lost catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
SMPD1
Uniprot ID:
P17405
Molecular weight:
69935.53
General function:
Involved in galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the biosynthesis of L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope on glycoproteins. Can also play a role in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Substrates include asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR), asialo-fetuin, and asialo-neural cell adhesion molecule. Requires sphingomyelin for activity: stearoyl-sphingomyelin was the most effective, followed by palmitoyl-sphingomyelin and lignoceroyl-sphingomyelin. Activity was demonstrated only for sphingomyelin with a saturated fatty acid and not for that with an unsaturated fatty acid, regardless of the length of the acyl group (By similarity).
Gene Name:
B3GAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9P2W7
Molecular weight:
38255.675
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRB3
Molecular weight:
65343.25
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Necessary for the synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol, the very early intermediate in GPI-anchor biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGA
Uniprot ID:
P37287
Molecular weight:
54126.065
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGH
Uniprot ID:
Q14442
Molecular weight:
21080.415
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGP
Uniprot ID:
P57054
Molecular weight:
18089.055
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGC
Uniprot ID:
Q92535
Molecular weight:
33582.18
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activity toward palmitoyl lyso-phosphocholine. Does not appear to have nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity.
Gene Name:
ENPP7
Uniprot ID:
Q6UWV6
Molecular weight:
51493.415

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 50 proteins in total.