You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.

NOTICE: The ontology section is undergoing maintainance. If it is not visible on a metabocard page or does not include the expected information, please try again later! Thank you!

Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2009-06-16 18:11:04 UTC
Update Date2017-12-20 20:55:19 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0012332
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB12332
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePS(14:0/16:0)
DescriptionPS(14:0/16:0) is a phosphatidylserine (PS or GPSer). It is a glycerophospholipid in which a phosphorylserine moiety occupies a glycerol substitution site. As is the case with diacylglycerols, glycerophosphoserines can have many different combinations of fatty acids of varying lengths and saturation attached at the C-1 and C-2 positions. Fatty acids containing 16, 18 and 20 carbons are the most common. PS(14:0/16:0), in particular, consists of one chain of myristic acid at the C-1 position and one chain of palmitic acid at the C-2 position. The myristic acid moiety is derived from nutmeg and butter, while the palmitic acid moiety is derived from fish oils, milk fats, vegetable oils and animal fats. Phosphatidylserine or 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine is distributed widely among animals, plants and microorganisms. It is usually less than 10% of the total phospholipids, the greatest concentration being in myelin from brain tissue. However, it may comprise 10 to 20 mol% of the total phospholipid in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of the cell. Phosphatidylserine is an acidic (anionic) phospholipid with three ionizable groups, i.e. the phosphate moiety, the amino group and the carboxyl function. As with other acidic lipids, it exists in nature in salt form, but it has a high propensity to chelate to calcium via the charged oxygen atoms of both the carboxyl and phosphate moieties, modifying the conformation of the polar head group. This interaction may be of considerable relevance to the biological function of phosphatidylserine, especially during bone formation for example. As phosphatidylserine is located entirely on the inner monolayer surface of the plasma membrane (and of other cellular membranes) and it is the most abundant anionic phospholipids. Therefore phosphatidylseriine may make the largest contribution to interfacial effects in membranes involving non-specific electrostatic interactions. This normal distribution is disturbed during platelet activation and cellular apoptosis. In human plasma, 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl and 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl species predominate, but in brain (especially grey matter), retina and many other tissues 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl species are very abundant. Indeed, the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids in brain phosphatidylserine is very much higher than in most other lipids. While most phospholipids have a saturated fatty acid on C-1 and an unsaturated fatty acid on C-2 of the glycerol backbone, the fatty acid distribution at the C-1 and C-2 positions of glycerol within phospholipids is continually in flux, owing to phospholipid degradation and the continuous phospholipid remodeling that occurs while these molecules are in membranes. Phosphatidylserines typically carry a net charge of -1 at physiological pH. They mostly have palmitic or stearic acid on carbon 1 and a long chain unsaturated fatty acid (e.g. 18:2, 20:4 and 22:6) on carbon 2. PS biosynthesis involves an exchange reaction of serine for ethanolamine in PE.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-Myristoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserineHMDB
Phosphatidylserine(14:0/16:0)HMDB
Phosphatidylserine(30:0)HMDB
PS(30:0)HMDB
pSer(14:0/16:0)HMDB
pSer(30:0)HMDB
1-tetradecanoyl-2-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine; 1-myristoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserineLipid Annotator
PS(14:0/16:0)Lipid Annotator
1-tetradecanoyl-2-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserineLipid Annotator
Chemical FormulaC36H70NO10P
Average Molecular Weight707.927
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight707.473734456
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-({[(2R)-2-(hexadecanoyloxy)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)propoxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)propanoic acid
Traditional Name(2S)-2-amino-3-{[(2R)-2-(hexadecanoyloxy)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)propoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy}propanoic acid
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
[H][C@](N)(COP(O)(=O)OC[C@@]([H])(COC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCCCC)OC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C36H70NO10P/c1-3-5-7-9-11-13-15-16-18-20-22-24-26-28-35(39)47-32(30-45-48(42,43)46-31-33(37)36(40)41)29-44-34(38)27-25-23-21-19-17-14-12-10-8-6-4-2/h32-33H,3-31,37H2,1-2H3,(H,40,41)(H,42,43)/t32-,33+/m1/s1
InChI KeyCMEYODOSAQTQFO-SAIUNTKASA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phosphatidylserines. These are glycerophosphoserines in which two fatty acids are bonded to the glycerol moiety through ester linkages. As is the case with diacylglycerols, phosphatidylserines can have many different combinations of fatty acids of varying lengths and saturation attached to the C-1 and C-2 positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassGlycerophospholipids
Sub ClassGlycerophosphoserines
Direct ParentPhosphatidylserines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Diacyl-glycerol-3-phosphoserine
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Tricarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Phosphoethanolamine
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Dialkyl phosphate
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

    Cellular process:

Disposition

Biological location:

  Cell and elements:

  Subcellular:

  Organ and components:

  Tissue and substructures:

Source:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00015 g/LALOGPS
logP3.95ALOGPS
logP8.6ChemAxon
logS-6.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.38ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area171.68 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count38ChemAxon
Refractivity187.63 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability83.57 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000l-9040202100-274303344e2bf5216bf9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000l-9120000000-12ede970d2a1af686b01View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000l-9350011000-7937108dbdae0f26722cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-1190202100-34dcbc43d796dbe4748dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-4390101000-cc3f754086ccf0eeda0dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9131000000-9eb3c87b28256c274614View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
  • Brain
  • Heart
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis PC(14:0/16:0)Pw015089Pw015089 greyscalePw015089 simpleNot Available
Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis PE(14:0/16:0)Pw015931Pw015931 greyscalePw015931 simpleNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB028951
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound52926089
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  2. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  3. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  4. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  5. Divecha N, Irvine RF: Phospholipid signaling. Cell. 1995 Jan 27;80(2):269-78. [PubMed:7834746 ]
  6. van Engeland M, Nieland LJ, Ramaekers FC, Schutte B, Reutelingsperger CP: Annexin V-affinity assay: a review on an apoptosis detection system based on phosphatidylserine exposure. Cytometry. 1998 Jan 1;31(1):1-9. [PubMed:9450519 ]
  7. Vance JE, Tasseva G: Formation and function of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in mammalian cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Mar;1831(3):543-54. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2012.08.016. Epub 2012 Aug 29. [PubMed:22960354 ]
  8. Cevc, Gregor (1993). Phospholipids Handbook. Marcel Dekker.
  9. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.
  10. Jean E. Vance (2008). Thematic Review Series: Glycerolipids. Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in mammalian cells: two metabolically related aminophospholipids. The Journal of Lipid Research, 49, 1377-1387..

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 41 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a powerful potency for releasing arachidonic acid from cell membrane phospholipids. Prefers phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine liposomes to those of phosphatidylserine.
Gene Name:
PLA2G10
Uniprot ID:
O15496
Molecular weight:
18153.04
General function:
Involved in diacylglycerol kinase activity
Specific function:
Reverses the normal flow of glycerolipid biosynthesis by phosphorylating diacylglycerol back to phosphatidic acid
Gene Name:
DGKG
Uniprot ID:
P49619
Molecular weight:
89095.3
General function:
Involved in diacylglycerol kinase activity
Specific function:
Upon cell stimulation converts the second messenger diacylglycerol into phosphatidate, initiating the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositols and attenuating protein kinase C activity
Gene Name:
DGKA
Uniprot ID:
P23743
Molecular weight:
82629.5
General function:
Involved in diacylglycerol kinase activity
Specific function:
Isoform 2 may be involved in cell growth and tumorigenesis. Involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis
Gene Name:
DGKD
Uniprot ID:
Q16760
Molecular weight:
134524.2
General function:
Involved in diacylglycerol kinase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits high phosphorylation activity for long-chain diacylglycerols
Gene Name:
DGKB
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6T7
Molecular weight:
90594.7
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
PKC is activated by diacylglycerol which in turn phosphorylates a range of cellular proteins. PKC also serves as the receptor for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters
Gene Name:
PRKCA
Uniprot ID:
P17252
Molecular weight:
76763.5
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May play a role in the transport of aminophospholipids from the outer to the inner leaflet of various membranes and the maintenance of asymmetric distribution of phospholipids, mainly in secretory vesicles
Gene Name:
ATP8A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2Q0
Molecular weight:
131368.2
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
May play a role in the antiviral response of interferon (IFN) by amplifying and enhancing the IFN response through increased expression of select subset of potent antiviral genes. May contribute to cytokine-regulated cell proliferation and differentiation
Gene Name:
PLSCR1
Uniprot ID:
O15162
Molecular weight:
35048.8
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylserine biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes a base-exchange reaction in which the polar head group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or phosphatidylcholine (PC) is replaced by L-serine. In membranes, PTDSS1 catalyzes mainly the conversion of phosphatidylcholine. Also converts, in vitro and to a lesser extent, phosphatidylethanolamine.
Gene Name:
PTDSS1
Uniprot ID:
P48651
Molecular weight:
55527.18
General function:
Involved in cell adhesion
Specific function:
Receptor for different ligands such as phospholipids, cholesterol ester, lipoproteins, phosphatidylserine and apoptotic cells. Probable receptor for HDL, located in particular region of the plasma membrane, called caveolae. Facilitates the flux of free and esterified cholesterol between the cell surface and extracellular donors and acceptors, such as HDL and to a lesser extent, apoB-containing lipoproteins and modified lipoproteins. Probably involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, via its phosphatidylserine binding activity. Receptor for hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2. Binding between SCARB1 and E2 was found to be independent of the genotype of the viral isolate. Plays an important role in the uptake of HDL cholesteryl ester
Gene Name:
SCARB1
Uniprot ID:
Q8WTV0
Molecular weight:
60877.4

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 41 proteins in total.