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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2009-07-25 00:10:13 UTC
Update Date2013-05-13 23:05:21 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB12938
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDynorphin B
DescriptionDynorphin B is an agonist of nuclear opioid receptors coupling nuclear protein Kinase C activation to the transcription of cardiogenic genes in GTR1 embryonic stem cells. Dynorphin B is a form of dynorphin.Dynorphins are a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin. When prodynorphin is cleaved during processing by proprotein convertase 2 (PC2), multiple active peptides are released: dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and a/b-neo-endorphin. Depolarization of a neuron containing prodynorphin stimulates PC2 processing, which occurs within synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Occasionally, prodynorphin is not fully processed, leading to the release of "big dynorphin."This 32-amino acid molecule consists of both dynorphin A and dynorphin B.Dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and big dynorphin all contain a high proportion of basic amino acid residues, in particular lysine and arginine (29.4%, 23.1%, and 31.2% basic residues, respectively), as well as many hydrophobic residues (41.2%, 30.8%, and 34.4% hydrophobic residues, respectively). Although dynorphins are found widely distributed in the CNS, they have the highest concentrations in the hypothalamus, medulla, pons, midbrain, and spinal cord. Dynorphins are stored in large (80-120 nm diameter) dense-core vesicles that are considerably larger than vesicles storing neurotransmitters. These large dense-core vesicles differ from small synaptic vesicles in that a more intense and prolonged stimulus is needed to cause the large vesicles to release their contents into the synaptic cleft. Dense-core vesicle storage is characteristic of opioid peptides storage. The first clues to the functionality of dynorphins came from Goldstein et al. in their work with opioid peptides. The group discovered an endogenous opioid peptide in the porcine pituitary that proved difficult to isolate. By sequencing the first 13 amino acids of the peptide, they created a synthetic version of the peptide with a similar potency to the natural peptide. Goldstein et al. applied the synthetic peptide to the guinea ileum longitudinal muscle and found it to be an extraordinarily potent opioid peptide. The peptide was called dynorphin (from the Greek dynamis=power) to describe its potency. Dynorphins exert their effects primarily through the κ-opioid receptor (KOR), a G-protein-coupled receptor. Two subtypes of KORs have been identified: K1 and K2. Although KOR is the primary receptor for all dynorphins, the peptides do have some affinity for the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), d-opioid receptor (DOR), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor. Different dynorphins show different receptor selectivities and potencies at receptors. Big dynorphin and dynorphin A have the same selectivity for human KOR, but dynorphin A is more selective for KOR over MOR and DOR than is big dynorphin. Big dynorphin is more potent at KORs than is dynorphin A. Both big dynorphin and dynorphin A are more potent and more selective than dynorphin B (Wikipedia).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Prodynorphin 228-240
  2. Rimorphin
  3. Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-Arg-Arg-Gln-Phe-Lys-Val-Val-Thr
Chemical FormulaC74H115N21O17
Average Molecular Weight1570.8354
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1569.877981359
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional IUPAC NameNot Available
CAS Registry Number85006-82-2
SMILES
CC(C)C[C@@H](NC(=O)[C@@H](CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)CNC(=O)CNC(=O)[C@H](N)CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(=O)NC(CCCN=C(N)N)C(=O)N[C@H](CCCN=C(N)N)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(=O)NC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C74H115N21O17/c1-40(2)34-53(91-68(107)54(36-44-18-10-8-11-19-44)86-58(100)39-84-57(99)38-85-62(101)48(76)35-46-25-27-47(97)28-26-46)67(106)89-51(24-17-33-83-74(80)81)63(102)87-50(23-16-32-82-73(78)79)64(103)90-52(29-30-56(77)98)65(104)92-55(37-45-20-12-9-13-21-45)69(108)88-49(22-14-15-31-75)66(105)93-59(41(3)4)70(109)94-60(42(5)6)71(110)95-61(43(7)96)72(111)112/h8-13,18-21,25-28,40-43,48-55,59-61,96-97H,14-17,22-24,29-39,75-76H2,1-7H3,(H2,77,98)(H,84,99)(H,85,101)(H,86,100)(H,87,102)(H,88,108)(H,89,106)(H,90,103)(H,91,107)(H,92,104)(H,93,105)(H,94,109)(H,95,110)(H,111,112)(H4,78,79,82)(H4,80,81,83)/t43-,48-,49+,50-,51?,52+,53-,54-,55?,59+,60+,61+/m1/s1
InChI KeyAGTSSZRZBSNTGQ-QHDWWRMQSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
ClassPeptides
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
  • Aromatic Homopolycyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • Alpha Amino Acid Or Derivative
  • Amphetamine Or Derivative
  • Beta Hydroxy Acid
  • Carboxamide Group
  • Carboxylic Acid Salt
  • Guanidine
  • N Acyl Alpha Amino Acid
  • N Acyl Amine
  • Phenol
  • Phenol Derivative
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
  • Primary Carboxylic Acid Amide
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amide
Direct ParentPeptides
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.013 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.3ALOGPS
logP-7.6ChemAxon
logS-5.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.29ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.16ChemAxon
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count25ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count22ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area650.89ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count51ChemAxon
Refractivity408.73ChemAxon
Polarizability166.36ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB029218
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDynorphin_B
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB12938
Metagene LinkHMDB12938
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound53481558
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available