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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2010-05-13 16:18:02 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:27:02 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB13593
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name1,4-Dithiothreitol
DescriptionDithiothreitol (DTT) is the common name for a small-molecule redox reagent known as Cleland's reagent. DTT's formula is C4H10O2S2 and the molecular structure of its reduced form is shown at the right; its oxidized form is a disulfide-bonded 6-membered ring (shown below). Its name derives from the four-carbon sugar, threose. DTT has an epimeric ('sister') compound, dithioerythritol. A common use of DTT is as a reducing or "deprotecting" agent for thiolated DNA. The terminal sulfur atoms of thiolated DNA have a tendency to form dimers in solution, especially in the presence of oxygen. Dimerization greatly lowers the efficiency of subsequent coupling reactions such as DNA immobilization on gold in biosensors. Typically DTT is mixed with a DNA solution and allowed to react, and then is removed by filtration (for the solid catalyst) or by chromatography (for the liquid form). The DTT removal procedure is often called "desalting.". DTT is frequently used to reduce the disulfide bonds of proteins and, more generally, to prevent intramolecular and intermolecular disulfide bonds from forming between cysteine residues of proteins. However, even DTT cannot reduce buried (solvent-inaccessible) disulfide bonds, so reduction of disulfide bonds is sometimes carried out under denaturing conditions (e.g., at high temperatures, or in the presence of a strong denaturant such as 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride, 8 M urea, or 1% sodium dodecylsulfate). Conversely, the solvent exposure of different disulfide bonds can be assayed by their rate of reduction in the presence of DTT. DTT can also be used as an oxidizing agent. Its principal advantage is that effectively no mixed-disulfide species are populated, in contrast to other agents such as glutathione. In very rare cases, a DTT adduct may be formed, i.e., the two sulfur atoms of DTT may form disulfide bonds to different sulfur atoms; in such cases, DTT cannot cyclize since it has no remaining free thiols. Due to air oxidation, DTT is a relatively unstable compound whose useful life can be extended by refrigeration and handling in an inert atmosphere. Since protonated sulfurs have lowered nucleophilicities, DTT becomes less potent as the pH lowers. Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine HCl (TCEP hydrochloride) is an alternative which is more stable and works even at low pH.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R,3R)-1,4-Dimercaptobutane-2,3-diolChEBI
1,4-DithiothreitolChEBI
2,3-DIHYDROXY-1,4-dithiobutaneChEBI
DL-threo-1,4-dimercapto-2,3-ButanediolChEBI
L-DTTChEBI
L-threo-1,4-dimercapto-2,3-ButanediolChEBI
threo-1,4-dimercapto-2,3-ButanediolChEBI
Chemical FormulaC4H10O2S2
Average Molecular Weight154.251
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight154.012220944
IUPAC Name(2R,3R)-1,4-disulfanylbutane-2,3-diol
Traditional NameL-dithiothreitol
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
O[C@@H](CS)[C@@H](O)CS
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H10O2S2/c5-3(1-7)4(6)2-8/h3-8H,1-2H2/t3-,4-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=VHJLVAABSRFDPM-IMJSIDKUSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,2-diols. These are polyols containing an alcohol group at two adjacent positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassAlcohols and polyols
Sub ClassPolyols
Direct Parent1,2-diols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-diol
  • Alkylthiol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.14 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.18ALOGPS
logP-0.28ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity38.84 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.68 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-00yr-4980000000-015b0bd9159f84485733View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Vitamin K MetabolismSMP00464Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB029593
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID388336
KEGG Compound IDC00265
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB13593
Metagene LinkHMDB13593
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound439196
PDB IDDTT
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-sensi
Specific function:
Involved in vitamin K metabolism. Catalytic subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex which reduces inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Gene Name:
VKORC1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BQB6
Molecular weight:
18234.3
Reactions
Reduced Vitamin K (phylloquinone) + Oxidized dithiothreitol → Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide + 1,4-Dithiothreitoldetails
Vitamin K1 + Oxidized dithiothreitol + Water → Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide + 1,4-Dithiothreitoldetails
Vitamin K + Oxidized dithiothreitol + Water → Vitamin K epoxide + 1,4-Dithiothreitoldetails
2,3-Epoxymenaquinone + 1,4-Dithiothreitol → Vitamin K2 + Oxidized dithiothreitol + Waterdetails