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Record Information
Creation Date2012-05-18 14:04:03 UTC
Update Date2017-08-16 08:33:36 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB13711
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLanthanum
DescriptionLanthanum is a chemical element with the symbol La and atomic number 57. Lanthanum is a silvery white metallic element that belongs to group 3 of the periodic table and is the first element of the lanthanide series. It is found in some rare-earth minerals, usually in combination with cerium and other rare earth elements. Lanthanum is a malleable, ductile, and soft metal that oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air. It is produced from the minerals monazite and bastnasite using a complex multistage extraction process. Lanthanum compounds have numerous applications as catalysts, additives in glass, carbon lighting for studio lighting and projection, ignition elements in lighters and torches, electron cathodes, scintillators, and others. Lanthanum carbonate (La2(CO3)3) was approved as a medication against renal failure. Lanthanum is a soft, malleable, silvery white metal which has hexagonal crystal structure at room temperature. At 310 °C, lanthanum changes to a face-centered cubic structure, and at 865 °C into a body-centered cubic structure. Lanthanum easily is oxidized (a centimeter-sized sample will completely oxidize within a year) and is therefore used as in elemental form only for research purposes. For example, single La atoms have been isolated by implanting them into fullerene molecules. If carbon nanotubes are filled with those lanthanum-encapsulated fullerenes and annealed, metallic nanochains of lanthanum are produced inside carbon nanotubes. Lanthanum is most commonly obtained from monazite and bastnasite. The mineral mixtures are crushed and ground. Monazite, because of its magnetic properties, can be separated by repeated electromagnetic separation. After separation, it is treated with hot concentrated sulfuric acid to produce water-soluble sulfates of rare earths. The acidic filtrates are partially neutralized with sodium hydroxide to pH 3-4. Thorium precipitates out of solution as hydroxide and is removed. After that, the solution is treated with ammonium oxalate to convert rare earths to their insoluble oxalates. The oxalates are converted to oxides by annealing. The oxides are dissolved in nitric acid that excludes one of the main components, cerium, whose oxide is insoluble in HNO3. Lanthanum is separated as a double salt with ammonium nitrate by crystallization. This salt is relatively less soluble than other rare earth double salts and therefore stays in the residue. While lanthanum has pharmacological effects on several receptors and ion channels, its specificity for the GABA receptor is unique among divalent cations. Lanthanum acts at the same modulatory site on the GABA receptor as zinc- a known negative allosteric modulator. The Lanthanum cation La3+ is a positive allosteric modulator at native and recombinant GABA receptors, increasing open channel time and decreasing desensitization in a subunit configuration dependent manner.
Lanthanum carbonate hydrateKegg
Lanthanum carbonic acid hydric acidGenerator
Lanthanum carbonateHMDB
Chemical Formula(H2O)nC3La2O9
Average Molecular WeightNot Available
Monoisotopic Molecular WeightNot Available
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
CAS Registry Number7439-91-0
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as organic carbonic acids. These are compounds comprising the carbonic acid functional group.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassOrganic carbonic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentOrganic carbonic acids
Alternative Parents
  • Carbonate salt
  • Carbonic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.002 +/- 0.001 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
      • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.0002 (0.00003-0.00079) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.00052 ± 0.00039 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    Not Available
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease ReferencesNone
    Associated OMIM IDsNone
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDNot Available
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID153464
    KEGG Compound IDNot Available
    BioCyc IDNot Available
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkLanthanum
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB0013711
    METLIN IDNot Available
    PubChem Compound176168
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID33336
    Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
    General ReferencesNot Available