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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:00:15 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:27:33 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB13862
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameN-desmethylimatinib
DescriptionN-desmethylimatinib (CGP74588) is a metabolite of Imatinib. N-desmethylimatinib belongs to the family of Anilides. These are organic compounds derived from oxoacids RkE(=O)l(OH)m by replacing an OH group by the NHPh group or derivative formed by ring substitution[1].
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
CGP74588HMDB
Chemical FormulaC28H29N7O
Average Molecular Weight479.5762
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight479.243358585
IUPAC NameN-(4-methyl-3-{[4-(pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]amino}phenyl)-4-(piperazin-1-ylmethyl)benzamide
Traditional NameN-(4-methyl-3-{[4-(pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]amino}phenyl)-4-(piperazin-1-ylmethyl)benzamide
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CC1=C(NC2=NC=CC(=N2)C2=CC=CN=C2)C=C(NC(=O)C2=CC=C(CN3CCNCC3)C=C2)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C28H29N7O/c1-20-4-9-24(17-26(20)34-28-31-12-10-25(33-28)23-3-2-11-30-18-23)32-27(36)22-7-5-21(6-8-22)19-35-15-13-29-14-16-35/h2-12,17-18,29H,13-16,19H2,1H3,(H,32,36)(H,31,33,34)
InChI KeyInChIKey=BQQYXPHRXIZMDM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-phenylbenzamides. These are benzamides that are N-linked to a phenyl group via the carboxamide group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzamides
Direct ParentN-phenylbenzamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-phenylbenzamide
  • Pyridinylpyrimidine
  • N-arylamide
  • Diaminotoluene
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Aminotoluene
  • Phenylmethylamine
  • Benzylamine
  • Benzoyl
  • Aralkylamine
  • N-alkylpiperazine
  • Toluene
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyridine
  • Piperazine
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Secondary amine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Waste products
Application
  • Pharmaceutical, waste
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0066 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.16ALOGPS
logP3.99ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.46ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.25ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.07 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity143.63 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability53.39 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00025
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB13862
Metagene LinkHMDB13862
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem CompoundNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
May play an important role in regulating or promoting cell proliferation in some normal and neoplastically transformed cells.
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular weight:
68685.82
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
General function:
Involved in cell adhesion
Specific function:
May be involved in cell-cell interactions and recognition
Gene Name:
DDR1
Uniprot ID:
Q08345
Molecular weight:
101126.7
References
  1. Gotlib J, Berube C, Growney JD, Chen CC, George TI, Williams C, Kajiguchi T, Ruan J, Lilleberg SL, Durocher JA, Lichy JH, Wang Y, Cohen PS, Arber DA, Heinrich MC, Neckers L, Galli SJ, Gilliland DG, Coutre SE: Activity of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor PKC412 in a patient with mast cell leukemia with the D816V KIT mutation. Blood. 2005 Oct 15;106(8):2865-70. Epub 2005 Jun 21. [15972446 ]
  2. Xu L, Tong R, Cochran DM, Jain RK: Blocking platelet-derived growth factor-D/platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta signaling inhibits human renal cell carcinoma progression in an orthotopic mouse model. Cancer Res. 2005 Jul 1;65(13):5711-9. [15994946 ]
  3. Neef M, Ledermann M, Saegesser H, Schneider V, Widmer N, Decosterd LA, Rochat B, Reichen J: Oral imatinib treatment reduces early fibrogenesis but does not prevent progression in the long term. J Hepatol. 2006 Jan;44(1):167-75. Epub 2005 Jul 12. [16168515 ]
  4. Jubert C, Geoerger B, Grill J, Hartmann O, Vassal G: [Targeted therapies in pediatric oncology: a new therapeutic approach?]. Arch Pediatr. 2006 Feb;13(2):189-94. Epub 2005 Nov 17. [16298518 ]
  5. Benjamin RS, Blanke CD, Blay JY, Bonvalot S, Eisenberg B: Management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the imatinib era: selected case studies. Oncologist. 2006 Jan;11(1):9-20. [16401709 ]
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
Protein tyrosine-kinase transmembrane receptor for CSF1 and IL34
Gene Name:
CSF1R
Uniprot ID:
P07333
Molecular weight:
107983.0
References
  1. Dewar AL, Zannettino AC, Hughes TP, Lyons AB: Inhibition of c-fms by imatinib: expanding the spectrum of treatment. Cell Cycle. 2005 Jul;4(7):851-3. Epub 2005 Jul 28. [15917650 ]
  2. Taylor JR, Brownlow N, Domin J, Dibb NJ: FMS receptor for M-CSF (CSF-1) is sensitive to the kinase inhibitor imatinib and mutation of Asp-802 to Val confers resistance. Oncogene. 2006 Jan 5;25(1):147-51. [16170366 ]
  3. Dewar AL, Farrugia AN, Condina MR, Bik To L, Hughes TP, Vernon-Roberts B, Zannettino AC: Imatinib as a potential antiresorptive therapy for bone disease. Blood. 2006 Jun 1;107(11):4334-7. Epub 2006 Jan 31. [16449525 ]
  4. Ando W, Hashimoto J, Nampei A, Tsuboi H, Tateishi K, Ono T, Nakamura N, Ochi T, Yoshikawa H: Imatinib mesylate inhibits osteoclastogenesis and joint destruction in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). J Bone Miner Metab. 2006;24(4):274-82. [16816921 ]
  5. El Hajj Dib I, Gallet M, Mentaverri R, Sevenet N, Brazier M, Kamel S: Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) enhances mature osteoclast apoptosis and suppresses osteoclast bone resorbing activity. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Dec 3;551(1-3):27-33. Epub 2006 Sep 16. [17049513 ]
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
Receptor that binds both PDGFA and PDGFB and has a tyrosine-protein kinase activity
Gene Name:
PDGFRA
Uniprot ID:
P16234
Molecular weight:
122668.5
References
  1. Yi ES, Strong CR, Piao Z, Perucho M, Weidner N: Epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumor with PDGFRA activating mutation and immunoreactivity. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2005 Jun;13(2):157-61. [15894928 ]
  2. Borbenyi Z: [Disorders with eosinophilia, treatment of hypereosinophilic syndrome]. Orv Hetil. 2005 May 1;146(18 Suppl 1):911-6. [15921304 ]
  3. Corless CL, Schroeder A, Griffith D, Town A, McGreevey L, Harrell P, Shiraga S, Bainbridge T, Morich J, Heinrich MC: PDGFRA mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: frequency, spectrum and in vitro sensitivity to imatinib. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Aug 10;23(23):5357-64. Epub 2005 May 31. [15928335 ]
  4. Chen LL, Sabripour M, Andtbacka RH, Patel SR, Feig BW, Macapinlac HA, Choi H, Wu EF, Frazier ML, Benjamin RS: Imatinib resistance in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Curr Oncol Rep. 2005 Jul;7(4):293-9. [15946589 ]
  5. Tefferi A: Modern diagnosis and treatment of primary eosinophilia. Acta Haematol. 2005;114(1):52-60. [15995325 ]
General function:
Involved in non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific function:
Protein kinase that regulates key processes linked to cell growth and survival. Regulates cytoskeleton remodeling during cell differentiation, cell division and cell adhesion. Localizes to dynamic actin structures, and phosphorylates CRK and CRKL, DOK1, and other proteins controlling cytoskeleton dynamics. Regulates DNA repair potentially by activating the proapoptotic pathway when the DNA damage is too severe to be repaired. Phosphorylates PSMA7 that leads to an inhibition of proteasomal activity and cell cycle transition blocks
Gene Name:
ABL1
Uniprot ID:
P00519
Molecular weight:
122871.4
References
  1. Hoerth E, Kodym R: Involvment of c-Abl in the radiation-induced inhibition of myoblast differentiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 2004 Oct;80(10):729-36. [15799618 ]
  2. Dewar AL, Zannettino AC, Hughes TP, Lyons AB: Inhibition of c-fms by imatinib: expanding the spectrum of treatment. Cell Cycle. 2005 Jul;4(7):851-3. Epub 2005 Jul 28. [15917650 ]
  3. Agirre X, Roman-Gomez J, Vazquez I, Jimenez-Velasco A, Larrayoz MJ, Lahortiga I, Andreu EJ, Marquez J, Beltran de Heredia JM, Odero MD, Prosper F, Calasanz MJ: Coexistence of different clonal populations harboring the b3a2 (p210) and e1a2 (p190) BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts in chronic myelogenous leukemia resistant to imatinib. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2005 Jul 1;160(1):22-6. [15949566 ]
  4. Brueggemeier SB, Wu D, Kron SJ, Palecek SP: Protein-acrylamide copolymer hydrogels for array-based detection of tyrosine kinase activity from cell lysates. Biomacromolecules. 2005 Sep-Oct;6(5):2765-75. [16153117 ]
  5. Haberler C, Gelpi E, Marosi C, Rossler K, Birner P, Budka H, Hainfellner JA: Immunohistochemical analysis of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha, -beta, c-kit, c-abl, and arg proteins in glioblastoma: possible implications for patient selection for imatinib mesylate therapy. J Neurooncol. 2006 Jan;76(2):105-9. [16205964 ]
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
Receptor that binds specifically to PDGFB and PDGFD and has a tyrosine-protein kinase activity. Phosphorylates Tyr residues at the C-terminus of PTPN11 creating a binding site for the SH2 domain of GRB2
Gene Name:
PDGFRB
Uniprot ID:
P09619
Molecular weight:
123966.9
References
  1. Basciani S, Brama M, Mariani S, De Luca G, Arizzi M, Vesci L, Pisano C, Dolci S, Spera G, Gnessi L: Imatinib mesylate inhibits Leydig cell tumor growth: evidence for in vitro and in vivo activity. Cancer Res. 2005 Mar 1;65(5):1897-903. [15753388 ]
  2. Jones RL, Judson IR: The development and application of imatinib. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2005 Mar;4(2):183-91. [15794712 ]
  3. Modi S, Seidman AD, Dickler M, Moasser M, D'Andrea G, Moynahan ME, Menell J, Panageas KS, Tan LK, Norton L, Hudis CA: A phase II trial of imatinib mesylate monotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005 Mar;90(2):157-63. [15803362 ]
  4. Johnson FM, Saigal B, Donato NJ: Induction of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and activation of EGF receptor in imatinib mesylate-treated squamous carcinoma cells. J Cell Physiol. 2005 Nov;205(2):218-27. [15887238 ]
  5. Chen J, Rocken C, Nitsche B, Hosius C, Gschaidmeier H, Kahl S, Malfertheiner P, Ebert MP: The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib fails to inhibit pancreatic cancer progression. Cancer Lett. 2006 Feb 28;233(2):328-37. [15893416 ]
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
Required for high-affinity binding to nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 and neurotrophin-4/5 but not brain- derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Known substrates for the Trk receptors are SHC1, PI 3-kinase, and PLC-gamma-1. Has a crucial role in the development and function of the nociceptive reception system as well as establishment of thermal regulation via sweating. Activates ERK1 by either SHC1- or PLC-gamma-1-dependent signaling pathway
Gene Name:
NTRK1
Uniprot ID:
P04629
Molecular weight:
87496.5
References
  1. Catani M, De Milito R, Simi M: [New orientations in the management of advanced, metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST): combination of surgery and systemic therapy with imatinib in a case of primary gastric location]. Chir Ital. 2005 Jan-Feb;57(1):127-33. [15832750 ]
  2. Kovacs M, Nagy P, Pak G, Feher J: [Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): clinical and pathological features]. Orv Hetil. 2005 Jun 26;146(26):1375-81. [16052979 ]
  3. de Groot JW, Plaza Menacho I, Schepers H, Drenth-Diephuis LJ, Osinga J, Plukker JT, Links TP, Eggen BJ, Hofstra RM: Cellular effects of imatinib on medullary thyroid cancer cells harboring multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2A and 2B associated RET mutations. Surgery. 2006 Jun;139(6):806-14. [16782438 ]
  4. de Groot JW, Zonnenberg BA, van Ufford-Mannesse PQ, de Vries MM, Links TP, Lips CJ, Voest EE: A phase II trial of imatinib therapy for metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Sep;92(9):3466-9. Epub 2007 Jun 19. [17579194 ]
  5. Delbaldo C: [Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamics relationships of imatinib (Glivec)]. Therapie. 2007 Mar-Apr;62(2):87-90. Epub 2007 Jun 21. [17582306 ]
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
This is the receptor for stem cell factor (mast cell growth factor). It has a tyrosine-protein kinase activity. Binding of the ligands leads to the autophosphorylation of KIT and its association with substrates such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Pi3K)
Gene Name:
KIT
Uniprot ID:
P10721
Molecular weight:
109863.7
References
  1. Lee JL, Kim JY, Ryu MH, Kang HJ, Chang HM, Kim TW, Lee H, Park JH, Kim HC, Kim JS, Kang YK: Response to imatinib in KIT- and PDGFRA-wild type gastrointestinal stromal associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Jun;51(6):1043-6. [16865565 ]
  2. Dy GK, Miller AA, Mandrekar SJ, Aubry MC, Langdon RM Jr, Morton RF, Schild SE, Jett JR, Adjei AA: A phase II trial of imatinib (ST1571) in patients with c-kit expressing relapsed small-cell lung cancer: a CALGB and NCCTG study. Ann Oncol. 2005 Nov;16(11):1811-6. Epub 2005 Aug 8. [16087693 ]
  3. Rutkowski P, Nowecki ZI, Debiec-Rychter M, Grzesiakowska U, Michej W, Wozniak A, Siedlecki JA, Limon J, vel Dobosz AJ, Kakol M, Osuch C, Ruka W: Predictive factors for long-term effects of imatinib therapy in patients with inoperable/metastatic CD117(+) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007 Sep;133(9):589-97. Epub 2007 Apr 26. [17458563 ]
  4. De Giorgi U: KIT mutations and imatinib dose effects in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Mar 20;25(9):1146-7; author reply 1147-8. [17369583 ]
  5. Posadas EM, Kwitkowski V, Kotz HL, Espina V, Minasian L, Tchabo N, Premkumar A, Hussain MM, Chang R, Steinberg SM, Kohn EC: A prospective analysis of imatinib-induced c-KIT modulation in ovarian cancer: a phase II clinical study with proteomic profiling. Cancer. 2007 Jul 15;110(2):309-17. [17559139 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Wang B, Zhou SF: Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(31):4066-218. [19754423 ]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Davies A, Jordanides NE, Giannoudis A, Lucas CM, Hatziieremia S, Harris RJ, Jorgensen HG, Holyoake TL, Pirmohamed M, Clark RE, Mountford JC: Nilotinib concentration in cell lines and primary CD34(+) chronic myeloid leukemia cells is not mediated by active uptake or efflux by major drug transporters. Leukemia. 2009 Nov;23(11):1999-2006. Epub 2009 Aug 27. [19710702 ]
  2. Dohse M, Scharenberg C, Shukla S, Robey RW, Volkmann T, Deeken JF, Brendel C, Ambudkar SV, Neubauer A, Bates SE: Comparison of ATP-binding cassette transporter interactions with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Aug;38(8):1371-80. Epub 2010 Apr 27. [20423956 ]
  3. Hamada A, Miyano H, Watanabe H, Saito H: Interaction of imatinib mesilate with human P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):824-8. Epub 2003 Sep 15. [12975485 ]
  4. Thomas J, Wang L, Clark RE, Pirmohamed M: Active transport of imatinib into and out of cells: implications for drug resistance. Blood. 2004 Dec 1;104(12):3739-45. Epub 2004 Aug 17. [15315971 ]
  5. Hegedus C, Ozvegy-Laczka C, Apati A, Magocsi M, Nemet K, Orfi L, Keri G, Katona M, Takats Z, Varadi A, Szakacs G, Sarkadi B: Interaction of nilotinib, dasatinib and bosutinib with ABCB1 and ABCG2: implications for altered anti-cancer effects and pharmacological properties. Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Oct;158(4):1153-64. Epub 2009 Sep 28. [19785662 ]
  6. Giannoudis A, Davies A, Lucas CM, Harris RJ, Pirmohamed M, Clark RE: Effective dasatinib uptake may occur without human organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1): implications for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2008 Oct 15;112(8):3348-54. Epub 2008 Jul 31. [18669873 ]
  7. Breedveld P, Pluim D, Cipriani G, Wielinga P, van Tellingen O, Schinkel AH, Schellens JH: The effect of Bcrp1 (Abcg2) on the in vivo pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec): implications for the use of breast cancer resistance protein and P-glycoprotein inhibitors to enable the brain penetration of imatinib in patients. Cancer Res. 2005 Apr 1;65(7):2577-82. [15805252 ]
  8. Oka M, Fukuda M, Soda H: [Anticancer drugs and ABC transporters]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2005 May;32(5):585-92. [15918555 ]
  9. Burger H, van Tol H, Brok M, Wiemer EA, de Bruijn EA, Guetens G, de Boeck G, Sparreboom A, Verweij J, Nooter K: Chronic imatinib mesylate exposure leads to reduced intracellular drug accumulation by induction of the ABCG2 (BCRP) and ABCB1 (MDR1) drug transport pumps. Cancer Biol Ther. 2005 Jul;4(7):747-52. Epub 2005 Jul 9. [15970668 ]
  10. Galimberti S, Cervetti G, Guerrini F, Testi R, Pacini S, Fazzi R, Simi P, Petrini M: Quantitative molecular monitoring of BCR-ABL and MDR1 transcripts in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia during Imatinib treatment. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2005 Oct 1;162(1):57-62. [16157201 ]
  11. Gardner ER, Burger H, van Schaik RH, van Oosterom AT, de Bruijn EA, Guetens G, Prenen H, de Jong FA, Baker SD, Bates SE, Figg WD, Verweij J, Sparreboom A, Nooter K: Association of enzyme and transporter genotypes with the pharmacokinetics of imatinib. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Aug;80(2):192-201. [16890580 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain. May be involved in brain-to-blood efflux. Appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of several cancer cell lines. When overexpressed, the transfected cells become resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin and doxorubicin, display diminished intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, and manifest an ATP- dependent increase in the efflux of rhodamine 123
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular weight:
72313.5
References
  1. Houghton PJ, Germain GS, Harwood FC, Schuetz JD, Stewart CF, Buchdunger E, Traxler P: Imatinib mesylate is a potent inhibitor of the ABCG2 (BCRP) transporter and reverses resistance to topotecan and SN-38 in vitro. Cancer Res. 2004 Apr 1;64(7):2333-7. [15059881 ]
  2. An Y, Ongkeko WM: ABCG2: the key to chemoresistance in cancer stem cells? Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009 Dec;5(12):1529-42. [19708828 ]
  3. Davies A, Jordanides NE, Giannoudis A, Lucas CM, Hatziieremia S, Harris RJ, Jorgensen HG, Holyoake TL, Pirmohamed M, Clark RE, Mountford JC: Nilotinib concentration in cell lines and primary CD34(+) chronic myeloid leukemia cells is not mediated by active uptake or efflux by major drug transporters. Leukemia. 2009 Nov;23(11):1999-2006. Epub 2009 Aug 27. [19710702 ]
  4. Dohse M, Scharenberg C, Shukla S, Robey RW, Volkmann T, Deeken JF, Brendel C, Ambudkar SV, Neubauer A, Bates SE: Comparison of ATP-binding cassette transporter interactions with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Aug;38(8):1371-80. Epub 2010 Apr 27. [20423956 ]
  5. Burger H, van Tol H, Boersma AW, Brok M, Wiemer EA, Stoter G, Nooter K: Imatinib mesylate (STI571) is a substrate for the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2 drug pump. Blood. 2004 Nov 1;104(9):2940-2. Epub 2004 Jul 13. [15251980 ]
  6. Hegedus C, Ozvegy-Laczka C, Apati A, Magocsi M, Nemet K, Orfi L, Keri G, Katona M, Takats Z, Varadi A, Szakacs G, Sarkadi B: Interaction of nilotinib, dasatinib and bosutinib with ABCB1 and ABCG2: implications for altered anti-cancer effects and pharmacological properties. Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Oct;158(4):1153-64. Epub 2009 Sep 28. [19785662 ]
  7. Breedveld P, Pluim D, Cipriani G, Wielinga P, van Tellingen O, Schinkel AH, Schellens JH: The effect of Bcrp1 (Abcg2) on the in vivo pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec): implications for the use of breast cancer resistance protein and P-glycoprotein inhibitors to enable the brain penetration of imatinib in patients. Cancer Res. 2005 Apr 1;65(7):2577-82. [15805252 ]
  8. Oka M, Fukuda M, Soda H: [Anticancer drugs and ABC transporters]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2005 May;32(5):585-92. [15918555 ]
  9. Burger H, van Tol H, Brok M, Wiemer EA, de Bruijn EA, Guetens G, de Boeck G, Sparreboom A, Verweij J, Nooter K: Chronic imatinib mesylate exposure leads to reduced intracellular drug accumulation by induction of the ABCG2 (BCRP) and ABCB1 (MDR1) drug transport pumps. Cancer Biol Ther. 2005 Jul;4(7):747-52. Epub 2005 Jul 9. [15970668 ]
  10. Yanase K, Tsukahara S, Mitsuhashi J, Sugimoto Y: Functional SNPs of the breast cancer resistance protein-therapeutic effects and inhibitor development. Cancer Lett. 2006 Mar 8;234(1):73-80. Epub 2005 Nov 21. [16303243 ]
  11. Nakanishi T, Shiozawa K, Hassel BA, Ross DD: Complex interaction of BCRP/ABCG2 and imatinib in BCR-ABL-expressing cells: BCRP-mediated resistance to imatinib is attenuated by imatinib-induced reduction of BCRP expression. Blood. 2006 Jul 15;108(2):678-84. Epub 2006 Mar 16. [16543472 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)- N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin- dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular weight:
61187.4
References
  1. Davies A, Jordanides NE, Giannoudis A, Lucas CM, Hatziieremia S, Harris RJ, Jorgensen HG, Holyoake TL, Pirmohamed M, Clark RE, Mountford JC: Nilotinib concentration in cell lines and primary CD34(+) chronic myeloid leukemia cells is not mediated by active uptake or efflux by major drug transporters. Leukemia. 2009 Nov;23(11):1999-2006. Epub 2009 Aug 27. [19710702 ]
  2. Engler JR, Frede A, Saunders VA, Zannettino AC, Hughes TP, White DL: Chronic myeloid leukemia CD34+ cells have reduced uptake of imatinib due to low OCT-1 activity. Leukemia. 2010 Apr;24(4):765-70. Epub 2010 Feb 11. [20147974 ]
  3. Ahlin G, Karlsson J, Pedersen JM, Gustavsson L, Larsson R, Matsson P, Norinder U, Bergstrom CA, Artursson P: Structural requirements for drug inhibition of the liver specific human organic cation transport protein 1. J Med Chem. 2008 Oct 9;51(19):5932-42. Epub 2008 Sep 13. [18788725 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin may develop a nephrotoxic action. Transport of creatinine is inhibited by fluoroquinolones such as DX-619 and LVFX. This transporter is a major determinant of the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin and may contribute to antitumor specificity
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular weight:
62564.0
References
  1. Tanihara Y, Masuda S, Katsura T, Inui K: Protective effect of concomitant administration of imatinib on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity focusing on renal organic cation transporter OCT2. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Nov 1;78(9):1263-71. Epub 2009 Jun 18. [19540211 ]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]