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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:28:16 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14367
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlimepiride
DescriptionGlimepiride is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is the first III generation sulphonyl urea it is a very potent sulphonyl urea with long duration of action.The mechanism of action of glimepiride in lowering blood glucose appears to be dependent on stimulating the release of insulin from functioning pancreatic beta cells, and increasing sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin. Glimepiride likely binds to ATP-sensitive potassium channel receptors on the pancreatic cell surface, reducing potassium conductance and causing depolarization of the membrane. Membrane depolarization stimulates calcium ion influx through voltage-sensitive calcium channels. This increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration induces the secretion of insulin.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
AmarylKegg
GlimepiridHMDB
GlimepiridaHMDB
GlimepiridumHMDB
GlimeprideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC24H34N4O5S
Average Molecular Weight490.616
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight490.224990908
IUPAC Name3-ethyl-4-methyl-N-{2-[4-({[(4-methylcyclohexyl)carbamoyl]amino}sulfonyl)phenyl]ethyl}-2-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxamide
Traditional Nameglimepiride
CAS Registry Number93479-97-1
SMILES
CCC1=C(C)CN(C(=O)NCCC2=CC=C(C=C2)S(=O)(=O)NC(=O)NC2CCC(C)CC2)C1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C24H34N4O5S/c1-4-21-17(3)15-28(22(21)29)24(31)25-14-13-18-7-11-20(12-8-18)34(32,33)27-23(30)26-19-9-5-16(2)6-10-19/h7-8,11-12,16,19H,4-6,9-10,13-15H2,1-3H3,(H,25,31)(H2,26,27,30)
InChI KeyInChIKey=WIGIZIANZCJQQY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzenesulfonamides. These are organic compounds containing a sulfonamide group that is S-linked to a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzenesulfonamides
Direct ParentBenzenesulfonamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzenesulfonamide
  • Phenethylamine
  • Pyrroline carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ureide
  • Sulfonylurea
  • Cyclohexylamine
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Pyrroline
  • Urea
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Antiarrhythmic Agents
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Sulfonylureas
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point207 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.84e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP3.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.038 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.82ALOGPS
logP3.12ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.32ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area124.68 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity129.8 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability53.86 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00222
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00222
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00222
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3357
KEGG Compound IDC07669
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlimepiride
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14367
Metagene LinkHMDB14367
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3476
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID5383
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific function:
In the kidney, probably plays a major role in potassium homeostasis. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. This channel is activated by internal ATP and can be blocked by external barium
Gene Name:
KCNJ1
Uniprot ID:
P48048
Molecular weight:
44794.6
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Proks P, Reimann F, Green N, Gribble F, Ashcroft F: Sulfonylurea stimulation of insulin secretion. Diabetes. 2002 Dec;51 Suppl 3:S368-76. [12475777 ]
  4. Bataille D: [Molecular mechanisms of insulin secretion]. Diabetes Metab. 2002 Dec;28(6 Suppl):4S7-13. [12703060 ]
General function:
Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific function:
This receptor is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by extracellular barium
Gene Name:
KCNJ11
Uniprot ID:
Q14654
Molecular weight:
43540.4
References
  1. Song DK, Ashcroft FM: Glimepiride block of cloned beta-cell, cardiac and smooth muscle K(ATP) channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 May;133(1):193-9. [11325810 ]
  2. Lawrence CL, Rainbow RD, Davies NW, Standen NB: Effect of metabolic inhibition on glimepiride block of native and cloned cardiac sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(5):746-52. [12086984 ]
  3. Bataille D: [Molecular mechanisms of insulin secretion]. Diabetes Metab. 2002 Dec;28(6 Suppl):4S7-13. [12703060 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Putative subunit of the beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP). Regulator of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and insulin release
Gene Name:
ABCC8
Uniprot ID:
Q09428
Molecular weight:
177006.4
References
  1. Muller G, Hartz D, Punter J, Okonomopulos R, Kramer W: Differential interaction of glimepiride and glibenclamide with the beta-cell sulfonylurea receptor. I. Binding characteristics. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 May 11;1191(2):267-77. [8172912 ]
  2. Kramer W, Muller G, Geisen K: Characterization of the molecular mode of action of the sulfonylurea, glimepiride, at beta-cells. Horm Metab Res. 1996 Sep;28(9):464-8. [8911984 ]
  3. Kramer W, Muller G, Girbig F, Gutjahr U, Kowalewski S, Hartz D, Summ HD: The molecular interaction of sulfonylureas with beta-cell ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995 Aug;28 Suppl:S67-80. [8529521 ]