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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:28:26 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14407
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCarmustine
DescriptionCarmustine is a cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
BCNUChEBI
BicnuChEBI
Bischloroethyl nitrosoureaChEBI
CarmustinaChEBI
CarmustinumChEBI
GliadelChEBI
N,N'-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosoureaChEBI
BischlorethylnitrosoureaHMDB
BischlorethylnitrosureaHMDB
CarmustinHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H9Cl2N3O2
Average Molecular Weight214.05
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight213.007181961
IUPAC Name1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea
Traditional Namecarmustine
CAS Registry Number154-93-8
SMILES
ClCCNC(=O)N(CCCl)N=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9Cl2N3O2/c6-1-3-8-5(11)10(9-12)4-2-7/h1-4H2,(H,8,11)
InChI KeyInChIKey=DLGOEMSEDOSKAD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as nitrosoureas. These are compounds containing a nitro group and an urea group N-N linked together, with the general structure R1N(R2)C(=O)N(R3)N=O.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassOrganic carbonic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassUreas
Direct ParentNitrosoureas
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Nitrosourea
  • Nitrosamide
  • Semicarbazide
  • Organic nitrosamine
  • N-nitroso compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point31 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.53e+00 g/LNot Available
LogP1.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.53 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.24ALOGPS
logP1.02ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.96ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area61.77 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity46.98 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.8 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00262
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00262
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00262
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012974
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2480
KEGG Compound IDC06873
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCarmustine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14407
Metagene LinkHMDB14407
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound2578
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID3423
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
GSR
Uniprot ID:
P00390
Molecular weight:
56256.565
References
  1. Akella SS, Harris C: Pyridine nucleotide flux and glutathione oxidation in the cultured rat conceptus. Reprod Toxicol. 1999 May-Jun;13(3):203-13. [10378469 ]
  2. Kirsch JD, Yi AK, Spitz DR, Krieg AM: Accumulation of glutathione disulfide mediates NF-kappaB activation during immune stimulation with CpG DNA. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 2002 Oct;12(5):327-40. [12477282 ]
  3. Vallyathan V, Mega JF, Shi X, Dalal NS: Enhanced generation of free radicals from phagocytes induced by mineral dusts. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1992 Apr;6(4):404-13. [1312851 ]
  4. Brodie AE, Reed DJ: Glutathione disulfide reduction in tumor mitochondria after t-butyl hydroperoxide treatment. Chem Biol Interact. 1992 Sep 28;84(2):125-32. [1394620 ]
  5. Jopperi-Davis KS, Park MS, Rogers LK, Backes CH Jr, Lim IK, Smith CV: Compartmental inhibition of hepatic glutathione reductase activities by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU) in Sprague-Dawley and Fischer-344 rats. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Mar 7;147(3):219-28. [15104113 ]
  6. Doroshenko N, Doroshenko P: The glutathione reductase inhibitor carmustine induces an influx of Ca2+ in PC12 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Aug 16;497(1):17-24. [15321730 ]
  7. Powell SR, Puglia CD: Effect of inhibition of glutathione reductase by carmustine on central nervous system oxygen toxicity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Jan;240(1):111-7. [3806383 ]
  8. Puglia CD, Powell SR: Inhibition of cellular antioxidants: a possible mechanism of toxic cell injury. Environ Health Perspect. 1984 Aug;57:307-11. [6094175 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]