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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:28:30 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14425
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDisopyramide
DescriptionA class I anti-arrhythmic agent (one that interferes directly with the depolarization of the cardiac membrane and thus serves as a membrane-stabilizing agent) with a depressant action on the heart similar to that of guanidine. It also possesses some anticholinergic and local anesthetic properties. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
alpha-(2-(diisopropylamino)Ethyl)-alpha-phenyl-2-pyridineacetamideChEBI
DisopiramidaChEBI
DisopyramidumChEBI
gamma-diisopropylamino-alpha-Phenyl-alpha-(2-pyridyl)butyramideChEBI
a-(2-(diisopropylamino)Ethyl)-a-phenyl-2-pyridineacetamideGenerator
α-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)-α-phenyl-2-pyridineacetamideGenerator
g-diisopropylamino-a-Phenyl-a-(2-pyridyl)butyramideGenerator
γ-diisopropylamino-α-phenyl-α-(2-pyridyl)butyramideGenerator
Disopyramide free baseHMDB
Disopyramide phosphateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC21H29N3O
Average Molecular Weight339.4745
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight339.231062565
IUPAC Name4-[bis(propan-2-yl)amino]-2-phenyl-2-(pyridin-2-yl)butanamide
Traditional Namedisopyramide
CAS Registry Number3737-09-5
SMILES
CC(C)N(CCC(C(N)=O)(C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=CC=N1)C(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H29N3O/c1-16(2)24(17(3)4)15-13-21(20(22)25,18-10-6-5-7-11-18)19-12-8-9-14-23-19/h5-12,14,16-17H,13,15H2,1-4H3,(H2,22,25)
InChI KeyInChIKey=UVTNFZQICZKOEM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pheniramines. These are compounds containing a pheniramine moiety, which is structurally characterized by the presence of a 2-benzylpyridine linked to an dimethyl(propyl)amine to form a dimethyl[3-phenyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)propyl]amine skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPheniramines
Direct ParentPheniramines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pheniramine
  • Phenylacetamide
  • Phenylpropylamine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Fatty amide
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Antiarrhythmic Agents
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point94.5 - 95 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility4.93e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP3.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.049 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.21ALOGPS
logP3.47ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.19ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.42ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area59.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity102.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.82 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Disopyramide PathwaySMP00325Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00280
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00280
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00280
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3002
KEGG Compound IDC06965
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDisopyramide
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14425
Metagene LinkHMDB14425
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3114
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4657
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Echizen H, Tanizaki M, Tatsuno J, Chiba K, Berwick T, Tani M, Gonzalez FJ, Ishizaki T: Identification of CYP3A4 as the enzyme involved in the mono-N-dealkylation of disopyramide enantiomers in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Aug;28(8):937-44. [10901704 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
  3. Zhang L, Fitzloff JF, Engel LC, Cook CS: Species difference in stereoselective involvement of CYP3A in the mono-N-dealkylation of disopyramide. Xenobiotica. 2001 Feb;31(2):73-83. [11407536 ]
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential in the electrocardiogram
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular weight:
226937.5
References
  1. Sugao M, Fujiki A, Nishida K, Sakabe M, Tsuneda T, Iwamoto J, Mizumaki K, Inoue H: Repolarization dynamics in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation: pharmacological therapy with bepridil and disopyramide. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2005 Jun;45(6):545-9. [15897781 ]
  2. Fujiki A, Sugao M, Nishida K, Sakabe M, Tsuneda T, Mizumaki K, Inoue H: Repolarization abnormality in idiopathic ventricular fibrillation: assessment using 24-hour QT-RR and QaT-RR relationships. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004 Jan;15(1):59-63. [15028073 ]
  3. Shimizu W, Antzelevitch C, Suyama K, Kurita T, Taguchi A, Aihara N, Takaki H, Sunagawa K, Kamakura S: Effect of sodium channel blockers on ST segment, QRS duration, and corrected QT interval in patients with Brugada syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000 Dec;11(12):1320-9. [11196553 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular weight:
66127.4
References
  1. Yamamoto N, Ozaki T, Keida Y, Ohtsuka M, Goto T: A comparison of the binding characteristics of class I antiarrhythmic agents for human muscarinic m1-m3 receptors. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;34(1):53-9. [10413067 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular weight:
51420.4
References
  1. Yamamoto N, Ozaki T, Keida Y, Ohtsuka M, Goto T: A comparison of the binding characteristics of class I antiarrhythmic agents for human muscarinic m1-m3 receptors. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;34(1):53-9. [10413067 ]
  2. Ishida Y, Mizukami M, Taniguchi T, Satake N, Fujiwara M, Shibata S: Anticholinergic action of disopyramide in intestinal smooth muscle of the guinea pig: inhibition of muscarinic receptors (M1 and M2). Jpn J Pharmacol. 1990 Feb;52(2):363-70. [1690310 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular weight:
51714.6
References
  1. Yamamoto N, Ozaki T, Keida Y, Ohtsuka M, Goto T: A comparison of the binding characteristics of class I antiarrhythmic agents for human muscarinic m1-m3 receptors. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;34(1):53-9. [10413067 ]
  2. Ishida Y, Mizukami M, Taniguchi T, Satake N, Fujiwara M, Shibata S: Anticholinergic action of disopyramide in intestinal smooth muscle of the guinea pig: inhibition of muscarinic receptors (M1 and M2). Jpn J Pharmacol. 1990 Feb;52(2):363-70. [1690310 ]
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated rapidly inactivating A-type potassium channels. May contribute to I(To) current in heart and I(Sa) current in neurons. Channel properties are modulated by interactions with other alpha subunits and with regulatory subunits
Gene Name:
KCND2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZV8
Molecular weight:
70535.8
References
  1. Casis O, Sanchez-Chapula JA: Disopyramide, imipramine, and amitriptyline bind to a common site on the transient outward K+ channel. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;32(4):521-6. [9781919 ]
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated rapidly inactivating A-type potassium channels. May contribute to I(To) current in heart and I(Sa) current in neurons. Channel properties are modulated by interactions with other alpha subunits and with regulatory subunits
Gene Name:
KCND3
Uniprot ID:
Q9UK17
Molecular weight:
73450.5
References
  1. Casis O, Sanchez-Chapula JA: Disopyramide, imipramine, and amitriptyline bind to a common site on the transient outward K+ channel. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;32(4):521-6. [9781919 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)- N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin- dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular weight:
61187.4
References
  1. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [9655880 ]
  2. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [11758759 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin may develop a nephrotoxic action. Transport of creatinine is inhibited by fluoroquinolones such as DX-619 and LVFX. This transporter is a major determinant of the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin and may contribute to antitumor specificity
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular weight:
62564.0
References
  1. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [11758759 ]