You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 02:45:46 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014452
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14452
Metabolite Identification
Common NameBexarotene
DescriptionBexarotene is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an antineoplastic agent indicated by the FDA for Cutaneous T cell lymphoma. It has been used off-label for lung cancer, breast cancer, and Kaposi's sarcoma (Wikipedia). Bexarotene selectively binds with and activates retinoid X receptor subtypes. There are three subtypes in total: RXRα, RXRβ, RXRγ. The exact mechanism of action of bexarotene in the treatment of CTCL is unknown but the drug has activity in all clinical stages of CTCL.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
BexarotenoChEBI
BexarotenumChEBI
P-(1-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3,5,5,8,8-Pentamethyl-2-naphthyl)vinyl)benzoic acidChEBI
P-(1-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3,5,5,8,8-Pentamethyl-2-naphthyl)vinyl)benzoateGenerator
TargretinMeSH
3-Methyl-ttnebMeSH
4-(1-(3,5,5,8,8-Pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethenyl)benzoic acidMeSH
Elan brand OF bexaroteneMeSH
Ligand brand OF bexaroteneMeSH
LG69 CompoundMeSH
Chemical FormulaC24H28O2
Average Molecular Weight348.4779
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight348.20893014
IUPAC Name4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethenyl]benzoic acid
Traditional Namebexarotene
CAS Registry Number153559-49-0
SMILES
CC1=CC2=C(C=C1C(=C)C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(O)=O)C(C)(C)CCC2(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C24H28O2/c1-15-13-20-21(24(5,6)12-11-23(20,3)4)14-19(15)16(2)17-7-9-18(10-8-17)22(25)26/h7-10,13-14H,2,11-12H2,1,3-6H3,(H,25,26)
InChI KeyNAVMQTYZDKMPEU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as retinoids. These are oxygenated derivatives of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-1,3,5,7-tetraene and derivatives thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassRetinoids
Direct ParentRetinoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Bexarotene
  • Sesquiterpenoid
  • Bisabolane sesquiterpenoid
  • Tetralin
  • Benzoic acid
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Styrene
  • Benzoyl
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Cell and elements:

Source:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Role

Industrial application:

  Pharmaceutical industry:

Biological role:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Cellular process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.00015 g/LNot Available
LogP6.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00015 g/LALOGPS
logP6.86ALOGPS
logP6.94ChemAxon
logS-6.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.07ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity117.12 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability40.89 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-0039000000-67c145e4b6291137b828View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-5138900000-2dd8135f74c794067a51View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0002-0009000000-f46ef667393584a6300eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0udj-0009000000-9b87e4750a290eb82a7eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-3ce7b47cafecba720b63View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0udi-0009000000-91e32292babb45759b5dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0009000000-885779b7401a85dbf649View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0029000000-e65f7a4f9e6ecad40c0bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00os-1594000000-b4c3e389bf263ae949a1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00kb-1941000000-7e96ac6cea878d4fd773View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0f6w-1920000000-ca6fbe2847a1daae3bd0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0f97-1920000000-f8a80e931ae20d42408cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0002-0239000000-3289f3a345e8948cb1c5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000t-0019000000-32d412923e98400a6964View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0f89-1159000000-92fbbb76dae0d7ba5527View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-002r-2291000000-1736e07264d4f60fc414View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0009000000-5c24e39715a45a65b007View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udj-0009000000-8a946560cca4b67e29caView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0f79-1298000000-4ea4093117f28c7caa9cView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00307 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00307 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00307
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID74139
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkBexarotene
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound82146
PDB ID9RA
ChEBI ID50859
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Lowe MN, Plosker GL: Bexarotene. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2000 Jul-Aug;1(4):245-50; discussion 251-2. [PubMed:11702369 ]
  2. Yen WC, Prudente RY, Corpuz MR, Negro-Vilar A, Lamph WW: A selective retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (LGD1069, targretin) inhibits angiogenesis and metastasis in solid tumours. Br J Cancer. 2006 Mar 13;94(5):654-60. [PubMed:16495926 ]
  3. Farol LT, Hymes KB: Bexarotene: a clinical review. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2004 Apr;4(2):180-8. [PubMed:15056048 ]
  4. Dragnev KH, Petty WJ, Shah SJ, Lewis LD, Black CC, Memoli V, Nugent WC, Hermann T, Negro-Vilar A, Rigas JR, Dmitrovsky E: A proof-of-principle clinical trial of bexarotene in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Mar 15;13(6):1794-800. [PubMed:17363535 ]
  5. Smit JW, Stokkel MP, Pereira AM, Romijn JA, Visser TJ: Bexarotene-induced hypothyroidism: bexarotene stimulates the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jul;92(7):2496-9. Epub 2007 Apr 17. [PubMed:17440015 ]
  6. Gniadecki R, Assaf C, Bagot M, Dummer R, Duvic M, Knobler R, Ranki A, Schwandt P, Whittaker S: The optimal use of bexarotene in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Br J Dermatol. 2007 Sep;157(3):433-40. Epub 2007 Jun 6. [PubMed:17553039 ]
  7. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  8. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  9. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  10. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  11. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Involved in the retinoic acid response pathway. Binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9C-RA)
Gene Name:
RXRB
Uniprot ID:
P28702
Molecular weight:
56921.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Tsai DE, Luger SM, Andreadis C, Vogl DT, Kemner A, Potuzak M, Goradia A, Loren AW, Perl AE, Schuster SJ, Porter DL, Stadtmauer EA, Goldstein SC, Thompson JE, Swider C, Bagg A, Mato AR, Carroll M: A phase I study of bexarotene, a retinoic X receptor agonist, in non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Sep 1;14(17):5619-25. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-5185. [PubMed:18765556 ]
  4. Tooker P, Yen WC, Ng SC, Negro-Vilar A, Hermann TW: Bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin), a selective retinoid X receptor agonist, prevents and reverses gemcitabine resistance in NSCLC cells by modulating gene amplification. Cancer Res. 2007 May 1;67(9):4425-33. [PubMed:17483357 ]
  5. Lalloyer F, Fievet C, Lestavel S, Torpier G, van der Veen J, Touche V, Bultel S, Yous S, Kuipers F, Paumelle R, Fruchart JC, Staels B, Tailleux A: The RXR agonist bexarotene improves cholesterol homeostasis and inhibits atherosclerosis progression in a mouse model of mixed dyslipidemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Dec;26(12):2731-7. Epub 2006 Sep 28. [PubMed:17008586 ]
  6. Yen WC, Lamph WW: The selective retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin) prevents and overcomes multidrug resistance in advanced breast carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther. 2005 May;4(5):824-34. [PubMed:15897247 ]
  7. Yen WC, Prudente RY, Corpuz MR, Negro-Vilar A, Lamph WW: A selective retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (LGD1069, targretin) inhibits angiogenesis and metastasis in solid tumours. Br J Cancer. 2006 Mar 13;94(5):654-60. [PubMed:16495926 ]
  8. Rizvi N, Hawkins MJ, Eisenberg PD, Yocum RC, Reich SD: Placebo-controlled trial of bexarotene, a retinoid x receptor agonist, as maintenance therapy for patients treated with chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer. 2001 Feb;2(3):210-5. [PubMed:14700480 ]
  9. Rigas JR, Dragnev KH: Emerging role of rexinoids in non-small cell lung cancer: focus on bexarotene. Oncologist. 2005 Jan;10(1):22-33. [PubMed:15632250 ]
  10. Farol LT, Hymes KB: Bexarotene: a clinical review. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2004 Apr;4(2):180-8. [PubMed:15056048 ]
  11. Lowe MN, Plosker GL: Bexarotene. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2000 Jul-Aug;1(4):245-50; discussion 251-2. [PubMed:11702369 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Involved in the retinoic acid response pathway. Binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9C-RA)
Gene Name:
RXRG
Uniprot ID:
P48443
Molecular weight:
50870.7
References
  1. Lowe MN, Plosker GL: Bexarotene. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2000 Jul-Aug;1(4):245-50; discussion 251-2. [PubMed:11702369 ]
  2. Tsai DE, Luger SM, Andreadis C, Vogl DT, Kemner A, Potuzak M, Goradia A, Loren AW, Perl AE, Schuster SJ, Porter DL, Stadtmauer EA, Goldstein SC, Thompson JE, Swider C, Bagg A, Mato AR, Carroll M: A phase I study of bexarotene, a retinoic X receptor agonist, in non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Sep 1;14(17):5619-25. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-5185. [PubMed:18765556 ]
  3. Tooker P, Yen WC, Ng SC, Negro-Vilar A, Hermann TW: Bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin), a selective retinoid X receptor agonist, prevents and reverses gemcitabine resistance in NSCLC cells by modulating gene amplification. Cancer Res. 2007 May 1;67(9):4425-33. [PubMed:17483357 ]
  4. Lalloyer F, Fievet C, Lestavel S, Torpier G, van der Veen J, Touche V, Bultel S, Yous S, Kuipers F, Paumelle R, Fruchart JC, Staels B, Tailleux A: The RXR agonist bexarotene improves cholesterol homeostasis and inhibits atherosclerosis progression in a mouse model of mixed dyslipidemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Dec;26(12):2731-7. Epub 2006 Sep 28. [PubMed:17008586 ]
  5. Yen WC, Lamph WW: The selective retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin) prevents and overcomes multidrug resistance in advanced breast carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther. 2005 May;4(5):824-34. [PubMed:15897247 ]
  6. Yen WC, Prudente RY, Corpuz MR, Negro-Vilar A, Lamph WW: A selective retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (LGD1069, targretin) inhibits angiogenesis and metastasis in solid tumours. Br J Cancer. 2006 Mar 13;94(5):654-60. [PubMed:16495926 ]
  7. Rizvi N, Hawkins MJ, Eisenberg PD, Yocum RC, Reich SD: Placebo-controlled trial of bexarotene, a retinoid x receptor agonist, as maintenance therapy for patients treated with chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer. 2001 Feb;2(3):210-5. [PubMed:14700480 ]
  8. Rigas JR, Dragnev KH: Emerging role of rexinoids in non-small cell lung cancer: focus on bexarotene. Oncologist. 2005 Jan;10(1):22-33. [PubMed:15632250 ]
  9. Farol LT, Hymes KB: Bexarotene: a clinical review. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2004 Apr;4(2):180-8. [PubMed:15056048 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Involved in the retinoic acid response pathway. Binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9C-RA). ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer
Gene Name:
RXRA
Uniprot ID:
P19793
Molecular weight:
50810.8
References
  1. Lowe MN, Plosker GL: Bexarotene. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2000 Jul-Aug;1(4):245-50; discussion 251-2. [PubMed:11702369 ]
  2. Tsai DE, Luger SM, Andreadis C, Vogl DT, Kemner A, Potuzak M, Goradia A, Loren AW, Perl AE, Schuster SJ, Porter DL, Stadtmauer EA, Goldstein SC, Thompson JE, Swider C, Bagg A, Mato AR, Carroll M: A phase I study of bexarotene, a retinoic X receptor agonist, in non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Sep 1;14(17):5619-25. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-5185. [PubMed:18765556 ]
  3. Tooker P, Yen WC, Ng SC, Negro-Vilar A, Hermann TW: Bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin), a selective retinoid X receptor agonist, prevents and reverses gemcitabine resistance in NSCLC cells by modulating gene amplification. Cancer Res. 2007 May 1;67(9):4425-33. [PubMed:17483357 ]
  4. Lalloyer F, Fievet C, Lestavel S, Torpier G, van der Veen J, Touche V, Bultel S, Yous S, Kuipers F, Paumelle R, Fruchart JC, Staels B, Tailleux A: The RXR agonist bexarotene improves cholesterol homeostasis and inhibits atherosclerosis progression in a mouse model of mixed dyslipidemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Dec;26(12):2731-7. Epub 2006 Sep 28. [PubMed:17008586 ]
  5. Yen WC, Lamph WW: The selective retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin) prevents and overcomes multidrug resistance in advanced breast carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther. 2005 May;4(5):824-34. [PubMed:15897247 ]
  6. Yen WC, Prudente RY, Corpuz MR, Negro-Vilar A, Lamph WW: A selective retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (LGD1069, targretin) inhibits angiogenesis and metastasis in solid tumours. Br J Cancer. 2006 Mar 13;94(5):654-60. [PubMed:16495926 ]
  7. Rizvi N, Hawkins MJ, Eisenberg PD, Yocum RC, Reich SD: Placebo-controlled trial of bexarotene, a retinoid x receptor agonist, as maintenance therapy for patients treated with chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer. 2001 Feb;2(3):210-5. [PubMed:14700480 ]
  8. Rigas JR, Dragnev KH: Emerging role of rexinoids in non-small cell lung cancer: focus on bexarotene. Oncologist. 2005 Jan;10(1):22-33. [PubMed:15632250 ]
  9. Farol LT, Hymes KB: Bexarotene: a clinical review. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2004 Apr;4(2):180-8. [PubMed:15056048 ]