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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:28:50 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14523
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMexiletine
DescriptionMexiletine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to lidocaine. It may have some anticonvulsant properties. [PubChem]Mexiletine, like lidocaine, inhibits the inward sodium current required for the initiation and conduction of impulses, thus reducing the rate of rise of the action potential, Phase 0. It achieves this reduced sodium current by inhibiting sodium channels. Mexiletine decreases the effective refractory period (ERP) in Purkinje fibers in the heart. The decrease in ERP is of lesser magnitude than the decrease in action potential duration (APD), which results in an increase in the ERP/APD ratio. It does not significantly affect resting membrane potential or sinus node automaticity, left ventricular function, systolic arterial blood pressure, atrioventricular (AV) conduction velocity, or QRS or QT intervals
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+-)-1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amineChEBI
(2Rs)-1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropaneChEBI
1-(2',6'-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropaneChEBI
1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-propanamineChEBI
1-Methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethanamineChEBI
MexiletinaChEBI
MexiletinumChEBI
MexilitineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC11H17NO
Average Molecular Weight179.2588
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight179.131014171
IUPAC Name1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
Traditional Name1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
CAS Registry Number31828-71-4
SMILES
CC(N)COC1=C(C)C=CC=C1C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C11H17NO/c1-8-5-4-6-9(2)11(8)13-7-10(3)12/h4-6,10H,7,12H2,1-3H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=VLPIATFUUWWMKC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenol ethers
Direct ParentPhenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point203 - 205 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility5.38e-01 g/LNot Available
LogP2.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.54 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.17ALOGPS
logP2.46ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area35.25 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity54.97 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Mexiletine PathwaySMP00329Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00379
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00379
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00379
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4034
KEGG Compound IDC07220
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMexiletine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14523
Metagene LinkHMDB14523
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound4178
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID6916
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
  2. Nakajima M, Kobayashi K, Shimada N, Tokudome S, Yamamoto T, Kuroiwa Y: Involvement of CYP1A2 in mexiletine metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Jul;46(1):55-62. [9690950 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
  2. Nakajima M, Kobayashi K, Shimada N, Tokudome S, Yamamoto T, Kuroiwa Y: Involvement of CYP1A2 in mexiletine metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Jul;46(1):55-62. [9690950 ]
General function:
Involved in transcription regulator activity
Specific function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular weight:
96146.7
References
  1. Hu W, Sorrentino C, Denison MS, Kolaja K, Fielden MR: Induction of cyp1a1 is a nonspecific biomarker of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation: results of large scale screening of pharmaceuticals and toxicants in vivo and in vitro. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;71(6):1475-86. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [17327465 ]
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential in the electrocardiogram
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular weight:
226937.5
References
  1. Valdivia CR, Ackerman MJ, Tester DJ, Wada T, McCormack J, Ye B, Makielski JC: A novel SCN5A arrhythmia mutation, M1766L, with expression defect rescued by mexiletine. Cardiovasc Res. 2002 Aug 1;55(2):279-89. [12123767 ]
  2. Chinushi M, Tagawa M, Sugiura H, Komura S, Hosaka Y, Washizuka T, Aizawa Y: Ventricular tachyarrhythmias in a canine model of LQT3: arrhythmogenic effects of sympathetic activity and therapeutic effects of mexiletine. Circ J. 2003 Mar;67(3):263-8. [12604879 ]
  3. Fabritz L, Kirchhof P, Franz MR, Nuyens D, Rossenbacker T, Ottenhof A, Haverkamp W, Breithardt G, Carmeliet E, Carmeliet P: Effect of pacing and mexiletine on dispersion of repolarisation and arrhythmias in DeltaKPQ SCN5A (long QT3) mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2003 Mar 15;57(4):1085-93. [12650887 ]
  4. Wang HW, Zheng YQ, Yang ZF, Li CZ, Liu YM: Effect of mexiletine on long QT syndrome model. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003 Apr;24(4):316-20. [12676070 ]
  5. Napolitano C, Bloise R, Priori SG: Gene-specific therapy for inherited arrhythmogenic diseases. Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Apr;110(1):1-13. Epub 2005 Sep 15. [16168489 ]
  6. Shimizu W, Antzelevitch C, Suyama K, Kurita T, Taguchi A, Aihara N, Takaki H, Sunagawa K, Kamakura S: Effect of sodium channel blockers on ST segment, QRS duration, and corrected QT interval in patients with Brugada syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000 Dec;11(12):1320-9. [11196553 ]
  7. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]