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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:28:59 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14559
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB30484
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAmpicillin
DescriptionAmpicillin is found in common pea. It is also a potential contaminant of cow's milk arising from its veterinary use. Ampicillin is a semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic. It has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. It is considered part of the aminopenicillin family and is roughly equivalent to amoxicillin in terms of spectrum and level of activity. It functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic. Ampicillin has been shown to exhibit analgesic, diuretic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial functions (PMID 12581979 , 15534635 , 12581979 , 2462602 , 17884248 ). Ampicillin belongs to the family of Penicillins. These are organic compounds containing the penicillin core structure, which is structurally characterized by a penam ring bearing two methyl groups at position 2, and an amide group at position 6 [starting from the sulfur atom at position 1]. [PubChem]By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, Ampicillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that Ampicillin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S,5R,6R)-6-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-phenylacetyl]amino}-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acidChEBI
(2S,5R,6R)-6-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-phenylethanoyl]amino}-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylIC ACIDChEBI
6-(D-(2-amino-2-phenylacetamido))-3,3-Dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-2-carboxylic acidChEBI
ABPCChEBI
AminobenzylpenicillinChEBI
AMPChEBI
AmpicilinaChEBI
Ampicillin acidChEBI
Ampicillin anhydrousChEBI
AmpicillineChEBI
AmpicillinumChEBI
APChEBI
D-(-)-6-(alpha-aminophenylacetamido)Penicillanic acidChEBI
D-(-)-AmpicillinChEBI
(2S,5R,6R)-6-[[(2R)-2-amino-2-Phenylacetyl]amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acidHMDB
6-(a-aminophenylacetamido)Penicillanic acidHMDB
6-(D(-)-alpha-aminophenylacetamido)Penicillanic acidHMDB
6-D(-)-alpha-aminophenylacetamido-Penicillanic acidHMDB
6-[(Aminophenylacetyl)amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 9ciHMDB
AcillinHMDB
AdobacillinHMDB
AlpenHMDB
alpha-AminobenzylpenicillinHMDB
AmblosinHMDB
AmcillHMDB
AmfipenHMDB
Amfipen VHMDB
Amipenix SHMDB
AmpenHMDB
AMPIHMDB
Ampi-bolHMDB
Ampi-coHMDB
Ampi-tabHMDB
AmpichelHMDB
AmpicilHMDB
Ampicillin anhydrateHMDB
Ampicillin baseHMDB
Ampicillin sodiumHMDB
Ampicillin trihydrateHMDB
AmpicillinHMDB
AmpicillinaHMDB
AmpifarmHMDB
AmpikelHMDB
AmpimedHMDB
AmpipeninHMDB
AmpiscelHMDB
AmpisynHMDB
AmpivaxHMDB
AmpivetHMDB
AmplacilinaHMDB
AmplinHMDB
AmplipenylHMDB
AmplisomHMDB
AmplitalHMDB
AustrapenHMDB
AY 6108HMDB
Bayer 5427HMDB
BinotalHMDB
BonapicillinHMDB
BritacilHMDB
BRL 1341HMDB
CampicillinHMDB
CimexHMDB
CopharcilinHMDB
D-(-)-alpha-AminobenzylpenicillinHMDB
D-(-)-alpha-AminopenicillinHMDB
D-a-AminobenzylpenicillinHMDB
D-AmpicillinHMDB
D-CillinHMDB
DelcillinHMDB
DeripenHMDB
DivercillinHMDB
DoktacillinHMDB
DuphacillinHMDB
GeocillinHMDB
GrampenilHMDB
GuicitrinaHMDB
GuicitrineHMDB
KS-R1HMDB
LifeampilHMDB
MagnapenHMDB
MarcillinHMDB
MorepenHMDB
NorobrittinHMDB
novo-AmpicillinHMDB
NSC 528986HMDB
NuvapenHMDB
Olin kidHMDB
OmnipenHMDB
OrbicilinaHMDB
Pen aHMDB
Pen ampilHMDB
PenbristolHMDB
PenbritinHMDB
PenbrockHMDB
PeniclineHMDB
PenimicHMDB
PensynHMDB
PentrexHMDB
PentrexlHMDB
PentrexylHMDB
PentritinHMDB
Pfizerpen aHMDB
PolycillinHMDB
PonecilHMDB
PrincillinHMDB
PrincipenHMDB
QidampHMDB
RacenacillinHMDB
ro-AmpenHMDB
RosamplineHMDB
RoscillinHMDB
SemicillinHMDB
ServicillinHMDB
SK-AmpicillinHMDB
SumipantoHMDB
SupenHMDB
SynpeninHMDB
TexcillinHMDB
TokiocillinHMDB
TolomolHMDB
TotacillinHMDB
TotalciclinaHMDB
TotapenHMDB
TrifacilinaHMDB
UkapenHMDB
UltrabionHMDB
UltrabronHMDB
VampenHMDB
ViccillinHMDB
VidocillinHMDB
VidopenHMDB
WypicilHMDB
Chemical FormulaC16H19N3O4S
Average Molecular Weight349.405
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight349.109626801
IUPAC Name(2S,5R,6R)-6-[(2R)-2-amino-2-phenylacetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Nameampicillin
CAS Registry Number69-53-4
SMILES
[H][C@]12SC(C)(C)[C@@H](N1C(=O)[C@H]2NC(=O)[C@H](N)C1=CC=CC=C1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H19N3O4S/c1-16(2)11(15(22)23)19-13(21)10(14(19)24-16)18-12(20)9(17)8-6-4-3-5-7-8/h3-7,9-11,14H,17H2,1-2H3,(H,18,20)(H,22,23)/t9-,10-,11+,14-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=AVKUERGKIZMTKX-NJBDSQKTSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as penicillins. These are organic compounds containing the penicillin core structure, which is structurally characterized by a penam ring bearing two methyl groups at position 2, and an amide group at position 6 [starting from the sulfur atom at position 1].
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassLactams
Sub ClassBeta lactams
Direct ParentPenicillins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Penicillin
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • Phenylacetamide
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Aralkylamine
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Thiazolidine
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azetidine
  • Azacycle
  • Dialkylthioether
  • Hemithioaminal
  • Thioether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Analgesic
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-microbial
  • Anti-pyretic
  • Diuretic
  • Penicillins
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point208 °CPhysProp
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.01E+004 mg/L (at 21 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
LogP1.35SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.6 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.88ALOGPS
logP-2ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.24ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.44ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area112.73 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity87.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.54 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00415
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00415
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00415
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB002353
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID6013
KEGG Compound IDC06574
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAmpicillin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14559
Metagene LinkHMDB14559
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound6249
PDB IDAIC
ChEBI ID28971
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Mo BH: [Clinical analysis of 410 cases of drug eruption]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2003 Feb;23(2):183, 186. [12581979 ]
  2. Rodevand E, Sletvold O, Kvande KT: [Side effects off allopurinol]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Oct 21;124(20):2618-9. [15534635 ]
  3. Kadurugamuwa JL, Hengstler B, Zak O: Cerebrospinal fluid protein profile in experimental pneumococcal meningitis and its alteration by ampicillin and anti-inflammatory agents. J Infect Dis. 1989 Jan;159(1):26-34. [2462602 ]
  4. Crivaro V, Bagattini M, Salza MF, Raimondi F, Rossano F, Triassi M, Zarrilli R: Risk factors for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae acquisition in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect. 2007 Oct;67(2):135-41. Epub 2007 Sep 19. [17884248 ]
  5. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular weight:
62751.1
References
  1. Ganapathy ME, Huang W, Rajan DP, Carter AL, Sugawara M, Iseki K, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: beta-lactam antibiotics as substrates for OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 21;275(3):1699-707. [10636865 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Molecular weight:
78805.3
References
  1. Covitz KM, Amidon GL, Sadee W: Human dipeptide transporter, hPEPT1, stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells. Pharm Res. 1996 Nov;13(11):1631-4. [8956326 ]
  2. Guo A, Hu P, Balimane PV, Leibach FH, Sinko PJ: Interactions of a nonpeptidic drug, valacyclovir, with the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) expressed in a mammalian cell line. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Apr;289(1):448-54. [10087037 ]
  3. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [15567297 ]
  4. Terada T, Saito H, Mukai M, Inui K: Recognition of beta-lactam antibiotics by rat peptide transporters, PEPT1 and PEPT2, in LLC-PK1 cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):F706-11. [9374833 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides
Gene Name:
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID:
Q16348
Molecular weight:
81782.8
References
  1. Terada T, Saito H, Mukai M, Inui K: Recognition of beta-lactam antibiotics by rat peptide transporters, PEPT1 and PEPT2, in LLC-PK1 cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):F706-11. [9374833 ]
  2. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [15567297 ]