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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:29:00 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14562
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSecobarbital
DescriptionSecobarbital is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a barbiturate derivative drug. It possesses anaesthetic, anticonvulsant, sedative and hypnotic properties. In the United Kingdom, it was known as Quinalbarbitone. Secobarbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABAA receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+-)-SecobarbitalChEBI
5-(1-Methylbutyl)-5-(2-propenyl)-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrioneChEBI
5-Allyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrioneChEBI
5-Allyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)barbituric acidChEBI
5-Allyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trioneChEBI
QuinalbarbitoneChEBI
SecobarbitalumChEBI
SecobarbitoneChEBI
SeconalChEBI
(+/-)-secobarbitalHMDB
SecobarbitaleHMDB
Sodium quinalbarbitoneHMDB
Sodium secobarbitalHMDB
Chemical FormulaC12H18N2O3
Average Molecular Weight238.2829
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight238.131742452
IUPAC Name5-(pentan-2-yl)-5-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
Traditional Namesecobarbital
CAS Registry Number76-73-3
SMILES
CCCC(C)C1(CC=C)C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H18N2O3/c1-4-6-8(3)12(7-5-2)9(15)13-11(17)14-10(12)16/h5,8H,2,4,6-7H2,1,3H3,(H2,13,14,15,16,17)
InChI KeyInChIKey=KQPKPCNLIDLUMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as barbituric acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a perhydropyrimidine ring substituted at C-2, -4 and -6 by oxo groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentBarbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Barbiturate
  • Ureide
  • 1,3-diazinane
  • Urea
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Adjuvants
  • Adjuvants, Anesthesia
  • Barbiturates
  • GABA Modulators
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point100 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.21e+00 g/LNot Available
LogP2.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.21 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.2ALOGPS
logP2.03ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.27 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity62.65 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.33 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-014i-6900000000-eb3ae85faebb012ef83bView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00418
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00418
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00418
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5005
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSecobarbital
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14562
Metagene LinkHMDB14562
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5193
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID9073
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
  2. Visser LE, van Schaik RH, Jan Danser AH, Hofman A, Witteman JC, van Duijn CM, Uitterlinden AG, Pols HA, Stricker BH: The risk of myocardial infarction in patients with reduced activity of cytochrome P450 2C9. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jul;17(7):473-9. [17558303 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Sakuma T, Ohtake M, Katsurayama Y, Jarukamjorn K, Nemoto N: Induction of CYP1A2 by phenobarbital in the livers of aryl hydrocarbon-responsive and -nonresponsive mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Mar;27(3):379-84. [10064569 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Visser LE, van Schaik RH, Jan Danser AH, Hofman A, Witteman JC, van Duijn CM, Uitterlinden AG, Pols HA, Stricker BH: The risk of myocardial infarction in patients with reduced activity of cytochrome P450 2C9. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jul;17(7):473-9. [17558303 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L- glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. May be involved in the transmission of light information from the retina to the hypothalamus. Modulates cell surface expression of NETO2
Gene Name:
GRIK2
Uniprot ID:
Q13002
Molecular weight:
102582.5
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [10487207 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L- glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist
Gene Name:
GRIA2
Uniprot ID:
P42262
Molecular weight:
98820.3
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [10487207 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular weight:
51801.4
References
  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. [14579514 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
  3. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  4. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [10487207 ]
  5. Peters JA, Kirkness EF, Callachan H, Lambert JJ, Turner AJ: Modulation of the GABAA receptor by depressant barbiturates and pregnane steroids. Br J Pharmacol. 1988 Aug;94(4):1257-69. [2850060 ]
  6. Miller LG, Deutsch SI, Greenblatt DJ, Paul SM, Shader RI: Acute barbiturate administration increases benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1988;96(3):385-90. [2906155 ]
  7. Kirkness EF, Turner AJ: The gamma-aminobutyrate/benzodiazepine receptor from pig brain. Purification and characterization of the receptor complex from cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Biochem J. 1986 Jan 1;233(1):265-70. [3006661 ]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  9. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  10. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular weight:
51325.9
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular weight:
55164.1
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular weight:
61622.6
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular weight:
52145.6
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular weight:
51023.7
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]