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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:29:14 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14619
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDuloxetine
DescriptionDuloxetine (brand names Cymbalta, Yentreve, and in parts of Europe, Xeristar or Ariclaim) is a drug which primarily targets major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), pain related to diabetic peripheral neuropathy and in some countries stress urinary incontinence (SUI). It is manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly and Company. Duloxetine has not yet been FDA approved for stress urinary incontinence or for fibromyalgia. Duloxetine is a selective SNRI (selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor). Duloxetine is a systemic drug therapy which affects the body as a whole. Known also under the code name LY248686, it is a potent dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE), possessing comparable affinities in binding to NE- and 5-HT transporter sites. It is a less potent inhibitor of dopamine reuptake.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(3S)-N-Methyl-3-(1-naphthyloxy)-3-(2-thienyl)propan-1-amineChEBI
LY 248686ChEBI
Chemical FormulaC18H19NOS
Average Molecular Weight297.415
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight297.118734925
IUPAC Namemethyl[(3S)-3-(naphthalen-1-yloxy)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)propyl]amine
Traditional Nameduloxetine
CAS Registry Number136434-34-9
SMILES
CNCC[C@H](OC1=CC=CC2=CC=CC=C12)C1=CC=CS1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C18H19NOS/c1-19-12-11-17(18-10-5-13-21-18)20-16-9-4-7-14-6-2-3-8-15(14)16/h2-10,13,17,19H,11-12H2,1H3/t17-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZEUITGRIYCTCEM-KRWDZBQOSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as naphthalenes. These are compounds containing a naphthalene moiety, which consists of two fused benzene rings.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassNaphthalenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentNaphthalenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Naphthalene
  • Aralkylamine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Thiophene
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Secondary amine
  • Ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors
  • Antidepressive Agents
  • Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility2.96e-03 g/LNot Available
LogP4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.003 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.72ALOGPS
logP4.2ChemAxon
logS-5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area21.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity87.73 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability33.15 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00476
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00476
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00476
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID54822
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDuloxetine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14619
Metagene LinkHMDB14619
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound60835
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID36795
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Carter NJ, McCormack PL: Duloxetine: a review of its use in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. CNS Drugs. 2009;23(6):523-41. doi: 10.2165/00023210-200923060-00006. [19480470 ]
  2. Karpa KD, Cavanaugh JE, Lakoski JM: Duloxetine pharmacology: profile of a dual monoamine modulator. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):361-76. [12481192 ]
  3. van Groeningen CJ, Peters GJ, Pinedo HM: Lack of effectiveness of combined 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with 5-fluorouracil-resistant advanced colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1989 Jan;25(1):45-9. [2784100 ]
  4. Jost W, Marsalek P: Duloxetine: mechanism of action at the lower urinary tract and Onuf's nucleus. Clin Auton Res. 2004 Aug;14(4):220-7. [15316838 ]
  5. Turcotte JE, Debonnel G, de Montigny C, Hebert C, Blier P: Assessment of the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake blocking properties of duloxetine in healthy subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 May;24(5):511-21. [11282251 ]
  6. Anttila S, Leinonen E: Duloxetine Eli Lilly. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2002 Aug;3(8):1217-21. [12211418 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Knadler MP, Lobo E, Chappell J, Bergstrom R: Duloxetine: clinical pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2011 May;50(5):281-94. doi: 10.2165/11539240-000000000-00000. [21366359 ]
  2. Preskorn SH, Nichols AI, Paul J, Patroneva AL, Helzner EC, Guico-Pabia CJ: Effect of desvenlafaxine on the cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme system. J Psychiatr Pract. 2008 Nov;14(6):368-78. [19057238 ]
  3. [No authors listed]Duloxetine: new indication. Depression and diabetic neuropathy: too many adverse effects. Prescrire Int. 2006 Oct;15(85):168-72. [17121211 ]
  4. Carter NJ, McCormack PL: Duloxetine: a review of its use in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. CNS Drugs. 2009;23(6):523-41. doi: 10.2165/00023210-200923060-00006. [19480470 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Knadler MP, Lobo E, Chappell J, Bergstrom R: Duloxetine: clinical pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2011 May;50(5):281-94. doi: 10.2165/11539240-000000000-00000. [21366359 ]
  2. Lobo ED, Bergstrom RF, Reddy S, Quinlan T, Chappell J, Hong Q, Ring B, Knadler MP: In vitro and in vivo evaluations of cytochrome P450 1A2 interactions with duloxetine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47(3):191-202. [18307373 ]
  3. [No authors listed]Duloxetine: new indication. Depression and diabetic neuropathy: too many adverse effects. Prescrire Int. 2006 Oct;15(85):168-72. [17121211 ]
  4. Carter NJ, McCormack PL: Duloxetine: a review of its use in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. CNS Drugs. 2009;23(6):523-41. doi: 10.2165/00023210-200923060-00006. [19480470 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular weight:
68494.255
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Carter NJ, McCormack PL: Duloxetine: a review of its use in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. CNS Drugs. 2009;23(6):523-41. doi: 10.2165/00023210-200923060-00006. [19480470 ]
  4. Pereira P, Gianesini J, da Silva Barbosa C, Cassol GF, Von Borowski RG, Kahl VF, Cappelari SE, Picada JN: Neurobehavioral and genotoxic parameters of duloxetine in mice using the inhibitory avoidance task and comet assay as experimental models. Pharmacol Res. 2009 Jan;59(1):57-61. Epub 2008 Oct 5. [18973814 ]
  5. Hunziker ME, Suehs BT, Bettinger TL, Crismon ML: Duloxetine hydrochloride: a new dual-acting medication for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Clin Ther. 2005 Aug;27(8):1126-43. [16199241 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular weight:
69331.42
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Gould GG, Javors MA, Frazer A: Effect of Chronic Administration of Duloxetine on Serotonin and Norepinephrine Transporter Binding Sites in Rat Brain. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Apr 29;. [16650830 ]
  3. Vaishnavi SN, Nemeroff CB, Plott SJ, Rao SG, Kranzler J, Owens MJ: Milnacipran: a comparative analysis of human monoamine uptake and transporter binding affinity. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Feb 1;55(3):320-2. [14744476 ]
  4. Beique JC, Lavoie N, de Montigny C, Debonnel G: Affinities of venlafaxine and various reuptake inhibitors for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998 May 15;349(1):129-32. [9669506 ]
  5. Vincent S, Bieck PR, Garland EM, Loghin C, Bymaster FP, Black BK, Gonzales C, Potter WZ, Robertson D: Clinical assessment of norepinephrine transporter blockade through biochemical and pharmacological profiles. Circulation. 2004 Jun 29;109(25):3202-7. Epub 2004 Jun 7. [15184278 ]
  6. Schou M, Halldin C, Pike VW, Mozley PD, Dobson D, Innis RB, Farde L, Hall H: Post-mortem human brain autoradiography of the norepinephrine transporter using (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Oct;15(5):517-20. Epub 2005 Apr 7. [16139169 ]
  7. Mirza NR, Nielsen EO, Troelsen KB: Serotonin transporter density and anxiolytic-like effects of antidepressants in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 May 9;31(4):858-66. Epub 2007 Jan 30. [17335951 ]
  8. Karpa KD, Cavanaugh JE, Lakoski JM: Duloxetine pharmacology: profile of a dual monoamine modulator. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):361-76. [12481192 ]
  9. van Groeningen CJ, Peters GJ, Pinedo HM: Lack of effectiveness of combined 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with 5-fluorouracil-resistant advanced colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1989 Jan;25(1):45-9. [2784100 ]
  10. Jost W, Marsalek P: Duloxetine: mechanism of action at the lower urinary tract and Onuf's nucleus. Clin Auton Res. 2004 Aug;14(4):220-7. [15316838 ]
  11. Trivedi MH, Desaiah D, Ossanna MJ, Pritchett YL, Brannan SK, Detke MJ: Clinical evidence for serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition of duloxetine. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008 May;23(3):161-9. [18408530 ]
  12. Bymaster FP, Lee TC, Knadler MP, Detke MJ, Iyengar S: The dual transporter inhibitor duloxetine: a review of its preclinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetic profile, and clinical results in depression. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(12):1475-93. [15892657 ]
  13. Khullar V, Cardozo L, Dmochowski R: Mixed incontinence: current evidence and future perspectives. Neurourol Urodyn. 2010 Apr;29(4):618-22. [20432324 ]
  14. Carter NJ, McCormack PL: Duloxetine: a review of its use in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. CNS Drugs. 2009;23(6):523-41. doi: 10.2165/00023210-200923060-00006. [19480470 ]
  15. Hunziker ME, Suehs BT, Bettinger TL, Crismon ML: Duloxetine hydrochloride: a new dual-acting medication for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Clin Ther. 2005 Aug;27(8):1126-43. [16199241 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular weight:
70324.165
References
  1. Chen F, Larsen MB, Sanchez C, Wiborg O: The S-enantiomer of R,S-citalopram, increases inhibitor binding to the human serotonin transporter by an allosteric mechanism. Comparison with other serotonin transporter inhibitors. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Mar;15(2):193-8. [15695064 ]
  2. Troelsen KB, Nielsen EO, Mirza NR: Chronic treatment with duloxetine is necessary for an anxiolytic-like response in the mouse zero maze: the role of the serotonin transporter. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Oct;181(4):741-50. Epub 2005 Sep 29. [16032412 ]
  3. Gould GG, Javors MA, Frazer A: Effect of Chronic Administration of Duloxetine on Serotonin and Norepinephrine Transporter Binding Sites in Rat Brain. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Apr 29;. [16650830 ]
  4. Mirza NR, Nielsen EO, Troelsen KB: Serotonin transporter density and anxiolytic-like effects of antidepressants in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 May 9;31(4):858-66. Epub 2007 Jan 30. [17335951 ]
  5. Vaishnavi SN, Nemeroff CB, Plott SJ, Rao SG, Kranzler J, Owens MJ: Milnacipran: a comparative analysis of human monoamine uptake and transporter binding affinity. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Feb 1;55(3):320-2. [14744476 ]
  6. Beique JC, Lavoie N, de Montigny C, Debonnel G: Affinities of venlafaxine and various reuptake inhibitors for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998 May 15;349(1):129-32. [9669506 ]
  7. Karpa KD, Cavanaugh JE, Lakoski JM: Duloxetine pharmacology: profile of a dual monoamine modulator. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):361-76. [12481192 ]
  8. van Groeningen CJ, Peters GJ, Pinedo HM: Lack of effectiveness of combined 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with 5-fluorouracil-resistant advanced colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1989 Jan;25(1):45-9. [2784100 ]
  9. Jost W, Marsalek P: Duloxetine: mechanism of action at the lower urinary tract and Onuf's nucleus. Clin Auton Res. 2004 Aug;14(4):220-7. [15316838 ]
  10. Trivedi MH, Desaiah D, Ossanna MJ, Pritchett YL, Brannan SK, Detke MJ: Clinical evidence for serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition of duloxetine. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008 May;23(3):161-9. [18408530 ]
  11. Bymaster FP, Lee TC, Knadler MP, Detke MJ, Iyengar S: The dual transporter inhibitor duloxetine: a review of its preclinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetic profile, and clinical results in depression. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(12):1475-93. [15892657 ]
  12. Khullar V, Cardozo L, Dmochowski R: Mixed incontinence: current evidence and future perspectives. Neurourol Urodyn. 2010 Apr;29(4):618-22. [20432324 ]
  13. Carter NJ, McCormack PL: Duloxetine: a review of its use in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. CNS Drugs. 2009;23(6):523-41. doi: 10.2165/00023210-200923060-00006. [19480470 ]
  14. Hunziker ME, Suehs BT, Bettinger TL, Crismon ML: Duloxetine hydrochloride: a new dual-acting medication for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Clin Ther. 2005 Aug;27(8):1126-43. [16199241 ]