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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:29:20 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14645
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHaloperidol
DescriptionA phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorders, ballism, and tourette syndrome (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in mental retardation and the chorea of huntington disease. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable hiccups. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-(3-P-Fluorobenzoylpropyl)-4-P-chlorophenyl-4-hydroxypiperidineChEBI
4'-fluoro-4-(4-(P-Chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidinyl)butyrophenoneChEBI
4'-fluoro-4-(4-Hydroxy-4-(4'-chlorophenyl)piperidino)butyrophenoneChEBI
4-(4-(Para-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidino)-4'-fluorobutyrophenoneChEBI
4-[4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-1-piperidyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-butan-1-oneChEBI
gamma-(4-(P-Chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxpiperidino)-P-fluorbutyrophenoneChEBI
HaldolChEBI
HaloperidolumChEBI
Chemical FormulaC21H23ClFNO2
Average Molecular Weight375.864
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight375.140134897
IUPAC Name4-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)butan-1-one
Traditional Namehaloperidol
CAS Registry Number52-86-8
SMILES
OC1(CCN(CCCC(=O)C2=CC=C(F)C=C2)CC1)C1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H23ClFNO2/c22-18-7-5-17(6-8-18)21(26)11-14-24(15-12-21)13-1-2-20(25)16-3-9-19(23)10-4-16/h3-10,26H,1-2,11-15H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=LNEPOXFFQSENCJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpiperidines. These are compounds containing a phenylpiperidine skeleton, which consists of a piperidine bound to a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPiperidines
Sub ClassPhenylpiperidines
Direct ParentPhenylpiperidines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpiperidine
  • Phenylbutylamine
  • Butyrophenone
  • Acetophenone
  • Aryl alkyl ketone
  • Aryl ketone
  • Benzoyl
  • Aralkylamine
  • Halobenzene
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Gamma-aminoketone
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Aryl chloride
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Ketone
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anti-Dyskinesia Agents
  • Antidyskinetics
  • Antiemetics
  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Antipsychotics
  • Butyrophenones
  • Dopamine Antagonists
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point151.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility4.46e-03 g/LNot Available
LogP4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0045 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.7ALOGPS
logP3.66ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.96ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.54 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity102.59 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability39.15 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0079-3290000000-cc6a990404ba7b9452a8View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00502
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00502
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00502
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3438
KEGG Compound IDC01814
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHaloperidol
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14645
Metagene LinkHMDB14645
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3559
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID5613
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Niemegeers CJ, Laduron PM: Pharmacology and biochemistry of haloperidol. Proc R Soc Med. 1976;69 suppl 1:3-8. [14331 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
NADPH-dependent reductase with broad substrate specificity. Catalyzes the reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl compounds including quinones, prostaglandins, menadione, plus various xenobiotics. Catalyzes the reduction of the antitumor anthracyclines doxorubicin and daunorubicin to the cardiotoxic compounds doxorubicinol and daunorubicinol. Can convert prostaglandin E2 to prostaglandin F2-alpha. Can bind glutathione, which explains its higher affinity for glutathione-conjugated substrates. Catalyzes the reduction of S-nitrosoglutathione.
Gene Name:
CBR1
Uniprot ID:
P16152
Molecular weight:
30374.73
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
  3. Kalgutkar AS, Taylor TJ, Venkatakrishnan K, Isin EM: Assessment of the contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the metabolism of the antipsychotic agent haloperidol to its potentially neurotoxic pyridinium metabolite and effect of antidepressants on the bioactivation pathway. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Mar;31(3):243-9. [12584149 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Micallef J, Fakra E, Blin O: [Use of antidepressant drugs in schizophrenic patients with depression]. Encephale. 2006 Mar-Apr;32(2 Pt 1):263-9. [16910628 ]
  2. Otani K, Aoshima T: Pharmacogenetics of classical and new antipsychotic drugs. Ther Drug Monit. 2000 Feb;22(1):118-21. [10688273 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular weight:
58164.815
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Tateishi T, Watanabe M, Kumai T, Tanaka M, Moriya H, Yamaguchi S, Satoh T, Kobayashi S: CYP3A is responsible for N-dealkylation of haloperidol and bromperidol and oxidation of their reduced forms by human liver microsomes. Life Sci. 2000 Nov 3;67(24):2913-20. [11133003 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
Gene Name:
GRIN2B
Uniprot ID:
Q13224
Molecular weight:
166365.9
References
  1. Hattori K, Uchino S, Isosaka T, Maekawa M, Iyo M, Sato T, Kohsaka S, Yagi T, Yuasa S: Fyn is required for haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 17;281(11):7129-35. Epub 2006 Jan 10. [16407246 ]
  2. Zhuravliova E, Barbakadze T, Natsvlishvili N, Mikeladze DG: Haloperidol induces neurotoxicity by the NMDA receptor downstream signaling pathway, alternative from glutamate excitotoxicity. Neurochem Int. 2007 Jun;50(7-8):976-82. Epub 2006 Nov 7. [17092607 ]
  3. Gu WH, Yang S, Shi WX, Zhen XC, Jin GZ: Effects of (-)-stepholidine on NMDA receptors: comparison with haloperidol and clozapine. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2007 Jul;28(7):953-8. [17588330 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  5. Steinmetz RD, Fava E, Nicotera P, Steinhilber D: A simple cell line based in vitro test system for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ligands. J Neurosci Methods. 2002 Jan 15;113(1):99-110. [11741727 ]
  6. Sinor JD, Du S, Venneti S, Blitzblau RC, Leszkiewicz DN, Rosenberg PA, Aizenman E: NMDA and glutamate evoke excitotoxicity at distinct cellular locations in rat cortical neurons in vitro. J Neurosci. 2000 Dec 1;20(23):8831-7. [11102491 ]
  7. Gallagher MJ, Huang H, Lynch DR: Modulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor by haloperidol: NR2B-specific interactions. J Neurochem. 1998 May;70(5):2120-8. [9572299 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular weight:
50618.9
References
  1. Osinski MA, Uchic ME, Seifert T, Shaughnessy TK, Miller LN, Nakane M, Cox BF, Brioni JD, Moreland RB: Dopamine D2, but not D4, receptor agonists are emetogenic in ferrets. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 May;81(1):211-9. [15894081 ]
  2. Bustillo J, Barrow R, Paz R, Tang J, Seraji-Bozorgzad N, Moore GJ, Bolognani F, Lauriello J, Perrone-Bizzozero N, Galloway MP: Long-term treatment of rats with haloperidol: lack of an effect on brain N-acetyl aspartate levels. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Apr;31(4):751-6. [16132064 ]
  3. Ishiwata K, Oda K, Sakata M, Kimura Y, Kawamura K, Oda K, Sasaki T, Naganawa M, Chihara K, Okubo Y, Ishii K: A feasibility study of [11C]SA4503-PET for evaluating sigmal receptor occupancy by neuroleptics: the binding of haloperidol to sigma1 and dopamine D2-like receptors. Ann Nucl Med. 2006 Oct;20(8):569-73. [17134027 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  5. Naiker DV, Catts SV, Catts VS, Bedi KS, Bryan-Lluka LJ: Dose determination of haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine using an in vivo dopamine D2-receptor occupancy method in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Jul 1;540(1-3):87-90. Epub 2006 May 11. [16730699 ]
  6. Uchida S, Kato Y, Hirano K, Kagawa Y, Yamada S: Brain neurotransmitter receptor-binding characteristics in rats after oral administration of haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine. Life Sci. 2007 Apr 3;80(17):1635-40. Epub 2007 Jan 27. [17316700 ]
  7. Leysen JE, Janssen PM, Megens AA, Schotte A: Risperidone: a novel antipsychotic with balanced serotonin-dopamine antagonism, receptor occupancy profile, and pharmacologic activity. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994 May;55 Suppl:5-12. [7520908 ]
  8. Seeman P: Dopamine D2 receptors as treatment targets in schizophrenia. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses. 2010 Apr;4(1):56-73. [20643630 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular weight:
52602.6
References
  1. Leysen JE, Janssen PM, Megens AA, Schotte A: Risperidone: a novel antipsychotic with balanced serotonin-dopamine antagonism, receptor occupancy profile, and pharmacologic activity. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994 May;55 Suppl:5-12. [7520908 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular weight:
44224.3
References
  1. Leysen JE, Janssen PM, Megens AA, Schotte A: Risperidone: a novel antipsychotic with balanced serotonin-dopamine antagonism, receptor occupancy profile, and pharmacologic activity. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994 May;55 Suppl:5-12. [7520908 ]
  2. Tuppurainen H, Kuikka JT, Viinamaki H, Husso M, Tiihonen J: Dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potential and occupancy in midbrain and temporal cortex by haloperidol, olanzapine and clozapine. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009 Aug;63(4):529-37. Epub 2009 May 22. [19496999 ]
  3. Tadori Y, Forbes RA, McQuade RD, Kikuchi T: Characterization of aripiprazole partial agonist activity at human dopamine D3 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Nov 12;597(1-3):27-33. Epub 2008 Sep 20. [18831971 ]
  4. Kessler RM, Ansari MS, Riccardi P, Li R, Jayathilake K, Dawant B, Meltzer HY: Occupancy of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors by olanzapine and haloperidol. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Dec;30(12):2283-9. [16123775 ]
  5. Malmberg, Mikaels, Mohell N: Agonist and inverse agonist activity at the dopamine D3 receptor measured by guanosine 5'--gamma-thio-triphosphate--35S- binding. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Apr;285(1):119-26. [9536001 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular weight:
49292.8
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Cai G, Gurdal H, Smith C, Wang HY, Friedman E: Inverse agonist properties of dopaminergic antagonists at the D(1A) dopamine receptor: uncoupling of the D(1A) dopamine receptor from G(s) protein. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Nov;56(5):989-96. [10531405 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [12438524 ]
  2. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [14985103 ]
  3. Boulton DW, DeVane CL, Liston HL, Markowitz JS: In vitro P-glycoprotein affinity for atypical and conventional antipsychotics. Life Sci. 2002 May 31;71(2):163-9. [12031686 ]