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Record Information
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:29:22 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDextrothyroxine
DescriptionThe major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (monoiodotyrosine) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (diiodotyrosine) in the thyroglobulin. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form triiodothyronine which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism. [PubChem]
Chemical FormulaC15H11I4NO4
Average Molecular Weight776.87
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight776.686681525
IUPAC Name(2R)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoic acid
Traditional Namedextrothyroxine
CAS Registry Number51-49-0
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diphenylethers. These are aromatic compounds containing two benzene rings linked to each other through an ether group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassDiphenylethers
Direct ParentDiphenylethers
Alternative Parents
  • Diphenylether
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Diaryl ether
  • D-alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • 2-iodophenol
  • 2-halophenol
  • Aralkylamine
  • Phenol
  • Iodobenzene
  • Halobenzene
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Aryl iodide
  • Aryl halide
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organoiodide
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusExpected but not Quantified
  • Drug
  • Antihyperlipidemics
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point235 - 236 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility8.98e-03 g/LNot Available
LogP4Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.009 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.27ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity126.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability49.31 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00509
  • Not Applicable
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00509
  • Not Applicable
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00509
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID8402
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDextrothyroxine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14651
Metagene LinkHMDB14651
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound8730
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30659
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. [11901210 ]


General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Iodination and coupling of the hormonogenic tyrosines in thyroglobulin to yield the thyroid hormones T(3) and T(4).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Visser TJ: The elemental importance of sufficient iodine intake: a trace is not enough. Endocrinology. 2006 May;147(5):2095-7. [16617153 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
High affinity receptor for triiodothyronine
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. [17315033 ]
  2. Gonzalez-Sancho JM, Garcia V, Bonilla F, Munoz A: Thyroid hormone receptors/THR genes in human cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003 Mar 31;192(2):121-32. [12668276 ]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  4. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  5. Yen PM, Feng X, Flamant F, Chen Y, Walker RL, Weiss RE, Chassande O, Samarut J, Refetoff S, Meltzer PS: Effects of ligand and thyroid hormone receptor isoforms on hepatic gene expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptor knockout mice. EMBO Rep. 2003 Jun;4(6):581-7. [12776178 ]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  7. Wu SY, Sadow PM, Refetoff S, Weiss RE: Tissue responses to thyroid hormone in a kindred with resistance to thyroid hormone harboring a commonly occurring mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (P453T). J Lab Clin Med. 2005 Aug;146(2):85-94. [16099238 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. High affinity receptor for triiodothyronine
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Jiang W, Miyamoto T, Kakizawa T, Sakuma T, Nishio S, Takeda T, Suzuki S, Hashizume K: Expression of thyroid hormone receptor alpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes; triiodothyronine increases the expression of lipogenic enzyme and triglyceride accumulation. J Endocrinol. 2004 Aug;182(2):295-302. [15283690 ]
  2. Kariv R, Enden A, Zvibel I, Rosner G, Brill S, Shafritz DA, Halpern Z, Oren R: Triiodothyronine and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induce expression of HGF in an immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line. Liver Int. 2003 Jun;23(3):187-93. [12955882 ]
  3. Mai W, Janier MF, Allioli N, Quignodon L, Chuzel T, Flamant F, Samarut J: Thyroid hormone receptor alpha is a molecular switch of cardiac function between fetal and postnatal life. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 13;101(28):10332-7. Epub 2004 Jul 6. [15240882 ]
  4. Sciaudone MP, Yao L, Schaller M, Zinn SA, Freake HC: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid enhances thyroid hormone action by a transcriptional mechanism. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Summer;99(1-3):219-31. [15235154 ]
  5. Timmer DC, Bakker O, Wiersinga WM: Triiodothyronine affects the alternative splicing of thyroid hormone receptor alpha mRNA. J Endocrinol. 2003 Nov;179(2):217-25. [14596673 ]
  6. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. [17315033 ]