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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:29:35 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14703
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMethotrexate
DescriptionMethotrexate is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA. [PubChem]Methotrexate anti-tumor activity is a result of the inhibition of folic acid reductase, leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis and inhibition of cellular replication. The mechanism involved in its activity against rheumatoid arthritis is not known.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-amino-10-Methylfolic acidChEBI
4-amino-N(10)-Methylpteroylglutamic acidChEBI
EmtexateChEBI
LedertrexateChEBI
MethotrexatumChEBI
MetotrexatoChEBI
MTXChEBI
N-[4-[[(2,4-diamino-6-Pteridinyl)methyl]methylamino]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acidChEBI
RheumatrexChEBI
TrexallChEBI
4-amino-10-MethylfolateGenerator
Methotrexic acidGenerator
4-amino-N(10)-MethylpteroylglutamateGenerator
Emtexic acidGenerator
Ledertrexic acidGenerator
AmethopterinHMDB
AmethopterineHMDB
HDMTXHMDB
L-AmethopterinHMDB
MethopterinHMDB
MethotextrateHMDB
MethotrexatHMDB
MethylaminopterinHMDB
MethylaminopterinumHMDB
N-Bismethylpteroylglutamic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC20H22N8O5
Average Molecular Weight454.4393
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight454.171315854
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-[(4-{[(2,4-diaminopteridin-6-yl)methyl](methyl)amino}phenyl)formamido]pentanedioic acid
Traditional Namemethotrexate
CAS Registry Number59-05-2
SMILES
CN(CC1=CN=C2N=C(N)N=C(N)C2=N1)C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C20H22N8O5/c1-28(9-11-8-23-17-15(24-11)16(21)26-20(22)27-17)12-4-2-10(3-5-12)18(31)25-13(19(32)33)6-7-14(29)30/h2-5,8,13H,6-7,9H2,1H3,(H,25,31)(H,29,30)(H,32,33)(H4,21,22,23,26,27)/t13-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=FBOZXECLQNJBKD-ZDUSSCGKSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as folic acids. These are heterocyclic compounds based on the 4-[(pteridin-6-ylmethyl)amino]benzoic acid skeleton conjugated with one or more L-glutamate units.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPteridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPterins and derivatives
Direct ParentFolic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Folic acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Hippuric acid
  • Hippuric acid or derivatives
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzamide
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Substituted aniline
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Benzoyl
  • Aralkylamine
  • Aniline
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Imidolactam
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyrazine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Abortifacient Agents
  • Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal
  • Antimetabolites
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antirheumatic Agents
  • Dermatologic Agents
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Folic Acid Antagonists
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point195 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.71e-01 g/LNot Available
LogP-2.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.17 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.91ALOGPS
logP-0.5ChemAxon
logS-3.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.81ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area210.54 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity119.21 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability44.54 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0fai-6900000000-25b0e287457fb3845ef4View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Methotrexate PathwaySMP00432Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00563
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00563
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00563
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID112728
KEGG Compound IDC01937
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMethotrexate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14703
Metagene LinkHMDB14703
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound126941
PDB IDMTX
ChEBI ID44185
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Klareskog L, van der Heijde D, de Jager JP, Gough A, Kalden J, Malaise M, Martin Mola E, Pavelka K, Sany J, Settas L, Wajdula J, Pedersen R, Fatenejad S, Sanda M: Therapeutic effect of the combination of etanercept and methotrexate compared with each treatment alone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 Feb 28;363(9410):675-81. [15001324 ]
  2. Johnston A, Gudjonsson JE, Sigmundsdottir H, Ludviksson BR, Valdimarsson H: The anti-inflammatory action of methotrexate is not mediated by lymphocyte apoptosis, but by the suppression of activation and adhesion molecules. Clin Immunol. 2005 Feb;114(2):154-63. [15639649 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular weight:
147916.735
References
  1. Zientek M, Jiang Y, Youdim K, Obach RS: In vitro-in vivo correlation for intrinsic clearance for drugs metabolized by human aldehyde oxidase. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Aug;38(8):1322-7. Epub 2010 May 5. [20444863 ]
  2. Baggott JE, Morgan SL: Methotrexate catabolism to 7-hydroxymethotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis alters drug efficacy and retention and is reduced by folic acid supplementation. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Aug;60(8):2257-61. [19644884 ]
  3. Jordan CG, Rashidi MR, Laljee H, Clarke SE, Brown JE, Beedham C: Aldehyde oxidase-catalysed oxidation of methotrexate in the liver of guinea-pig, rabbit and man. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;51(4):411-8. [10385213 ]
General function:
Involved in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.
Gene Name:
MTHFR
Uniprot ID:
P42898
Molecular weight:
74595.895
References
  1. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [17586865 ]
  2. Kremer JM: Methotrexate pharmacogenomics. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006 Sep;65(9):1121-3. [16905578 ]
General function:
Involved in dihydrofolate reductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA precursor synthesis. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFRL1.
Gene Name:
DHFR
Uniprot ID:
P00374
Molecular weight:
21452.61
References
  1. Al-Rashood ST, Aboldahab IA, Nagi MN, Abouzeid LA, Abdel-Aziz AA, Abdel-Hamide SG, Youssef KM, Al-Obaid AM, El-Subbagh HI: Synthesis, dihydrofolate reductase inhibition, antitumor testing, and molecular modeling study of some new 4(3H)-quinazolinone analogs. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Dec 15;14(24):8608-21. Epub 2006 Sep 12. [16971132 ]
  2. Assaraf YG: Molecular basis of antifolate resistance. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2007 Mar;26(1):153-81. [17333344 ]
  3. Bennett B, Langan P, Coates L, Mustyakimov M, Schoenborn B, Howell EE, Dealwis C: Neutron diffraction studies of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase complexed with methotrexate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 5;103(49):18493-8. Epub 2006 Nov 27. [17130456 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  5. Totani K, Matsuo I, Ihara Y, Ito Y: High-mannose-type glycan modifications of dihydrofolate reductase using glycan-methotrexate conjugates. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Aug 1;14(15):5220-9. Epub 2006 May 2. [16647263 ]
  6. Uga H, Kuramori C, Ohta A, Tsuboi Y, Tanaka H, Hatakeyama M, Yamaguchi Y, Takahashi T, Kizaki M, Handa H: A new mechanism of methotrexate action revealed by target screening with affinity beads. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;70(5):1832-9. Epub 2006 Aug 25. [16936229 ]
  7. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [17586865 ]
General function:
Involved in tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives allowing concentration of folate compounds in the cell and the intracellular retention of these cofactors, which are important substrates for most of the folate-dependent enzymes that are involved in one-carbon transfer reactions involved in purine, pyrimidine and amino acid synthesis. Unsubstitued reduced folates are the preferred substrates. Metabolizes methotrexate (MTX) to polyglutamates.
Gene Name:
FPGS
Uniprot ID:
Q05932
Molecular weight:
59173.37
References
  1. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [17586865 ]
General function:
Involved in IMP cyclohydrolase activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 steps in purine biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
ATIC
Uniprot ID:
P31939
Molecular weight:
64615.255
References
  1. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [17586865 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 6-phosphogluconate to ribulose 5-phosphate and CO(2), with concomitant reduction of NADP to NADPH (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PGD
Uniprot ID:
P52209
Molecular weight:
53139.56
References
  1. Akkemik E, Budak H, Ciftci M: Effects of some drugs on human erythrocyte 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase: an in vitro study. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2010 Aug;25(4):476-9. [20235752 ]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the polyglutamate sidechains of pteroylpolyglutamates. Progressively removes gamma-glutamyl residues from pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamate to yield pteroyl-alpha-glutamate (folic acid) and free glutamate. May play an important role in the bioavailability of dietary pteroylpolyglutamates and in the metabolism of pteroylpolyglutamates and antifolates.
Gene Name:
GGH
Uniprot ID:
Q92820
Molecular weight:
35964.045
References
  1. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [17586865 ]
General function:
Involved in thymidylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.
Gene Name:
TYMS
Uniprot ID:
P04818
Molecular weight:
35715.65
References
  1. Hider SL, Bruce IN, Thomson W: The pharmacogenetics of methotrexate. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Oct;46(10):1520-4. Epub 2007 Jun 24. [17586865 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotrexate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP)
Gene Name:
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPD5
Molecular weight:
77402.2
References
  1. Abe T, Unno M, Onogawa T, Tokui T, Kondo TN, Nakagomi R, Adachi H, Fujiwara K, Okabe M, Suzuki T, Nunoki K, Sato E, Kakyo M, Nishio T, Sugita J, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Date F, Ono K, Kondo Y, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Ohtani H, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Nagura H, Ito S, Matsuno S: LST-2, a human liver-specific organic anion transporter, determines methotrexate sensitivity in gastrointestinal cancers. Gastroenterology. 2001 Jun;120(7):1689-99. [11375950 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent high affinity transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone-3-sulfate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) are transported with much lower efficiency
Gene Name:
SLCO1C1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NYB5
Molecular weight:
78695.6
References
  1. Pizzagalli F, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Klenk U, Folkers G, Meier PJ: Identification of a novel human organic anion transporting polypeptide as a high affinity thyroxine transporter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2283-96. [12351693 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. May play an important role in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular weight:
76448.0
References
  1. Abe T, Unno M, Onogawa T, Tokui T, Kondo TN, Nakagomi R, Adachi H, Fujiwara K, Okabe M, Suzuki T, Nunoki K, Sato E, Kakyo M, Nishio T, Sugita J, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Date F, Ono K, Kondo Y, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Ohtani H, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Nagura H, Ito S, Matsuno S: LST-2, a human liver-specific organic anion transporter, determines methotrexate sensitivity in gastrointestinal cancers. Gastroenterology. 2001 Jun;120(7):1689-99. [11375950 ]
  2. van de Steeg E, van der Kruijssen CM, Wagenaar E, Burggraaff JE, Mesman E, Kenworthy KE, Schinkel AH: Methotrexate pharmacokinetics in transgenic mice with liver-specific expression of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (SLCO1B1). Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Feb;37(2):277-81. Epub 2008 Nov 20. [19022939 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular weight:
53957.7
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [10579682 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular weight:
174205.6
References
  1. Han YH, Kato Y, Haramura M, Ohta M, Matsuoka H, Sugiyama Y: Physicochemical parameters responsible for the affinity of methotrexate analogs for rat canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT/MRP2). Pharm Res. 2001 May;18(5):579-86. [11465411 ]
  2. Masuda M, I'izuka Y, Yamazaki M, Nishigaki R, Kato Y, Ni'inuma K, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Methotrexate is excreted into the bile by canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter in rats. Cancer Res. 1997 Aug 15;57(16):3506-10. [9270020 ]
  3. Hooijberg JH, Broxterman HJ, Kool M, Assaraf YG, Peters GJ, Noordhuis P, Scheper RJ, Borst P, Pinedo HM, Jansen G: Antifolate resistance mediated by the multidrug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP2. Cancer Res. 1999 Jun 1;59(11):2532-5. [10363967 ]
  4. Bakos E, Evers R, Sinko E, Varadi A, Borst P, Sarkadi B: Interactions of the human multidrug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP2 with organic anions. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Apr;57(4):760-8. [10727523 ]
  5. Chen C, Scott D, Hanson E, Franco J, Berryman E, Volberg M, Liu X: Impact of Mrp2 on the biliary excretion and intestinal absorption of furosemide, probenecid, and methotrexate using Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats. Pharm Res. 2003 Jan;20(1):31-7. [12608533 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o- glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular weight:
171589.5
References
  1. Heijn M, Hooijberg JH, Scheffer GL, Szabo G, Westerhoff HV, Lankelma J: Anthracyclines modulate multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mediated organic anion transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 May 22;1326(1):12-22. [9188796 ]
  2. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [11585759 ]
  3. Paumi CM, Wright M, Townsend AJ, Morrow CS: Multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 1 and MRP3 attenuate cytotoxic and transactivating effects of the cyclopentenone prostaglandin, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)prostaglandin J2 in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Biochemistry. 2003 May 13;42(18):5429-37. [12731885 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular weight:
169341.1
References
  1. Akita H, Suzuki H, Hirohashi T, Takikawa H, Sugiyama Y: Transport activity of human MRP3 expressed in Sf9 cells: comparative studies with rat MRP3. Pharm Res. 2002 Jan;19(1):34-41. [11837698 ]
  2. Oleschuk CJ, Deeley RG, Cole SP: Substitution of Trp1242 of TM17 alters substrate specificity of human multidrug resistance protein 3. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Feb;284(2):G280-9. Epub 2002 Oct 9. [12388190 ]
  3. Hirohashi T, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Characterization of the transport properties of cloned rat multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3). J Biol Chem. 1999 May 21;274(21):15181-5. [10329726 ]
  4. Zeng H, Liu G, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of amphipathic anions by human multidrug resistance protein 3. Cancer Res. 2000 Sep 1;60(17):4779-84. [10987286 ]
  5. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [11585759 ]
  6. Paumi CM, Wright M, Townsend AJ, Morrow CS: Multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 1 and MRP3 attenuate cytotoxic and transactivating effects of the cyclopentenone prostaglandin, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)prostaglandin J2 in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Biochemistry. 2003 May 13;42(18):5429-37. [12731885 ]
  7. Li T, Ito K, Horie T: Transport of fluorescein methotrexate by multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 in IEC-6 cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Sep;285(3):G602-10. [12909565 ]
  8. Zehnpfennig B, Urbatsch IL, Galla HJ: Functional reconstitution of human ABCC3 into proteoliposomes reveals a transport mechanism with positive cooperativity. Biochemistry. 2009 May 26;48(20):4423-30. [19334674 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Norris MD, De Graaf D, Haber M, Kavallaris M, Madafiglio J, Gilbert J, Kwan E, Stewart BW, Mechetner EB, Gudkov AV, Roninson IB: Involvement of MDR1 P-glycoprotein in multifactorial resistance to methotrexate. Int J Cancer. 1996 Mar 1;65(5):613-9. [8598312 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain. May be involved in brain-to-blood efflux. Appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of several cancer cell lines. When overexpressed, the transfected cells become resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin and doxorubicin, display diminished intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, and manifest an ATP- dependent increase in the efflux of rhodamine 123
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular weight:
72313.5
References
  1. Suzuki M, Suzuki H, Sugimoto Y, Sugiyama Y: ABCG2 transports sulfated conjugates of steroids and xenobiotics. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 20;278(25):22644-9. Epub 2003 Apr 7. [12682043 ]
  2. Breedveld P, Zelcer N, Pluim D, Sonmezer O, Tibben MM, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH, van Tellingen O, Borst P, Schellens JH: Mechanism of the pharmacokinetic interaction between methotrexate and benzimidazoles: potential role for breast cancer resistance protein in clinical drug-drug interactions. Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 15;64(16):5804-11. [15313923 ]
  3. Mitomo H, Kato R, Ito A, Kasamatsu S, Ikegami Y, Kii I, Kudo A, Kobatake E, Sumino Y, Ishikawa T: A functional study on polymorphism of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2: critical role of arginine-482 in methotrexate transport. Biochem J. 2003 Aug 1;373(Pt 3):767-74. [12741957 ]
  4. Chen ZS, Robey RW, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Ren XQ, Sugimoto Y, Ross DD, Bates SE, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate, methotrexate polyglutamates, and 17beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) by ABCG2: effects of acquired mutations at R482 on methotrexate transport. Cancer Res. 2003 Jul 15;63(14):4048-54. [12874005 ]
  5. Volk EL, Schneider E: Wild-type breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a methotrexate polyglutamate transporter. Cancer Res. 2003 Sep 1;63(17):5538-43. [14500392 ]
  6. Suzuki K, Doki K, Homma M, Tamaki H, Hori S, Ohtani H, Sawada Y, Kohda Y: Co-administration of proton pump inhibitors delays elimination of plasma methotrexate in high-dose methotrexate therapy. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Jan;67(1):44-9. Epub 2008 Nov 17. [19076159 ]
  7. Hou YX, Li CZ, Palaniyandi K, Magtibay PM, Homolya L, Sarkadi B, Chang XB: Effects of putative catalytic base mutation E211Q on ABCG2-mediated methotrexate transport. Biochemistry. 2009 Sep 29;48(38):9122-31. [19691360 ]
  8. Tiwari AK, Sodani K, Wang SR, Kuang YH, Ashby CR Jr, Chen X, Chen ZS: Nilotinib (AMN107, Tasigna) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the activity of the ABCB1/Pgp and ABCG2/BCRP/MXR transporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Jul 15;78(2):153-61. Epub 2009 Apr 11. [19427995 ]
  9. Dai CL, Liang YJ, Wang YS, Tiwari AK, Yan YY, Wang F, Chen ZS, Tong XZ, Fu LW: Sensitization of ABCG2-overexpressing cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agent by sunitinib was associated with inhibiting the function of ABCG2. Cancer Lett. 2009 Jun 28;279(1):74-83. Epub 2009 Feb 18. [19232821 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds
Gene Name:
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSA0
Molecular weight:
59970.9
References
  1. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [12130730 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular weight:
74144.1
References
  1. Cattori V, van Montfoort JE, Stieger B, Landmann L, Meijer DK, Winterhalter KH, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Localization of organic anion transporting polypeptide 4 (Oatp4) in rat liver and comparison of its substrate specificity with Oatp1, Oatp2 and Oatp3. Pflugers Arch. 2001 Nov;443(2):188-95. [11713643 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Has been shown to act both as an intestinal proton- coupled high-affinity folate transporter and as an intestinal heme transporter which mediates heme uptake from the gut lumen into duodenal epithelial cells. The iron is then released from heme and may be transported into the bloodstream. Dietary heme iron is an important nutritional source of iron. Shows a higher affinity for folate than heme
Gene Name:
SLC46A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96NT5
Molecular weight:
49770.0
References
  1. Nakai Y, Inoue K, Abe N, Hatakeyama M, Ohta KY, Otagiri M, Hayashi Y, Yuasa H: Functional characterization of human proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein 1 heterologously expressed in mammalian cells as a folate transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):469-76. Epub 2007 May 2. [17475902 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification
Gene Name:
ABCC4
Uniprot ID:
O15439
Molecular weight:
149525.3
References
  1. Chen ZS, Lee K, Kruh GD: Transport of cyclic nucleotides and estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide by multidrug resistance protein 4. Resistance to 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 7;276(36):33747-54. Epub 2001 Jul 10. [11447229 ]
  2. Rius M, Nies AT, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Jedlitschky G, Keppler D: Cotransport of reduced glutathione with bile salts by MRP4 (ABCC4) localized to the basolateral hepatocyte membrane. Hepatology. 2003 Aug;38(2):374-84. [12883481 ]
  3. Bai J, Lai L, Yeo HC, Goh BC, Tan TM: Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) mediates efflux of bimane-glutathione. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Feb;36(2):247-57. [14643890 ]
  4. van Aubel RA, Smeets PH, Peters JG, Bindels RJ, Russel FG: The MRP4/ABCC4 gene encodes a novel apical organic anion transporter in human kidney proximal tubules: putative efflux pump for urinary cAMP and cGMP. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Mar;13(3):595-603. [11856762 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as estrone-3-sulfate (PubMed:10873595). Mediates transport of prostaglandins (PG) E1 and E2, thyroxine (T4), deltorphin II, BQ-123 and vasopressin, but not DPDPE (a derivative of enkephalin lacking an N-terminal tyrosine residue), estrone-3- sulfate, taurocholate, digoxin nor DHEAS (PubMed:16971491)
Gene Name:
SLCO3A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UIG8
Molecular weight:
76552.1
References
  1. Adachi H, Suzuki T, Abe M, Asano N, Mizutamari H, Tanemoto M, Nishio T, Onogawa T, Toyohara T, Kasai S, Satoh F, Suzuki M, Tokui T, Unno M, Shimosegawa T, Matsuno S, Ito S, Abe T: Molecular characterization of human and rat organic anion transporter OATP-D. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Dec;285(6):F1188-97. [14631946 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8
References
  1. Lu R, Chan BS, Schuster VL: Cloning of the human kidney PAH transporter: narrow substrate specificity and regulation by protein kinase C. Am J Physiol. 1999 Feb;276(2 Pt 2):F295-303. [9950961 ]
  2. Kuze K, Graves P, Leahy A, Wilson P, Stuhlmann H, You G: Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a mouse renal organic anion transporter in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 15;274(3):1519-24. [9880528 ]
  3. Uwai Y, Okuda M, Takami K, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Functional characterization of the rat multispecific organic anion transporter OAT1 mediating basolateral uptake of anionic drugs in the kidney. FEBS Lett. 1998 Nov 6;438(3):321-4. [9827570 ]
  4. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [12130730 ]
  5. Sekine T, Watanabe N, Hosoyamada M, Kanai Y, Endou H: Expression cloning and characterization of a novel multispecific organic anion transporter. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jul 25;272(30):18526-9. [9228014 ]
  6. Uwai Y, Iwamoto K: Transport of aminopterin by human organic anion transporters hOAT1 and hOAT3: Comparison with methotrexate. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2010;25(2):163-9. [20460822 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Participates in physiological processes involving bile acids, conjugated steroids and cyclic nucleotides. Enhances the cellular extrusion of cAMP and cGMP. Stimulates the ATP-dependent uptake of a range of physiological and synthetic lipophilic anions, including the glutathione S-conjugates leukotriene C4 and dinitrophenyl S-glutathione, steroid sulfates such as dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulfate (DHEAS) and estrone 3-sulfate, glucuronides such as estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide (E(2)17betaG), the monoanionic bile acids glycocholate and taurocholate, and methotrexate. Probably functions to secrete earwax
Gene Name:
ABCC11
Uniprot ID:
Q96J66
Molecular weight:
154299.6
References
  1. Chen ZS, Guo Y, Belinsky MG, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Transport of bile acids, sulfated steroids, estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide, and leukotriene C4 by human multidrug resistance protein 8 (ABCC11). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;67(2):545-57. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [15537867 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha- ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular weight:
60025.0
References
  1. Sun W, Wu RR, van Poelje PD, Erion MD: Isolation of a family of organic anion transporters from human liver and kidney. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 May 4;283(2):417-22. [11327718 ]
  2. Sekine T, Cha SH, Tsuda M, Apiwattanakul N, Nakajima N, Kanai Y, Endou H: Identification of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 expressed predominantly in the liver. FEBS Lett. 1998 Jun 12;429(2):179-82. [9650585 ]