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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:29:46 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14737
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameThiopental
DescriptionA barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration. It is also used for hypnosis and for the control of convulsive states. It has been used in neurosurgical patients to reduce increased intracranial pressure. It does not produce any excitation but has poor analgesic and muscle relaxant properties. Small doses have been shown to be anti-analgesic and lower the pain threshold. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p920)
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+-)-ThiopentalChEBI
2-thio-5-Ethyl-5-sec-pentylbarbituric acidChEBI
5-Ethyl-5-(1-methyl-butyl)-2-thioxo-dihydro-pyrimidine-4,6-dioneChEBI
PenthiobarbitalChEBI
PentothiobarbitalChEBI
ThiopentobarbitalChEBI
ThiopentobarbitoneChEBI
Thiopentobarbituric acidChEBI
ThiopentoneChEBI
PentothalHMDB
ThiomebumalHMDB
ThionembutalHMDB
Chemical FormulaC11H18N2O2S
Average Molecular Weight242.338
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight242.10889852
IUPAC Name5-ethyl-5-(pentan-2-yl)-2-sulfanylidene-1,3-diazinane-4,6-dione
Traditional Namethiopental
CAS Registry Number76-75-5
SMILES
CCCC(C)C1(CC)C(=O)NC(=S)NC1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C11H18N2O2S/c1-4-6-7(3)11(5-2)8(14)12-10(16)13-9(11)15/h7H,4-6H2,1-3H3,(H2,12,13,14,15,16)
InChI KeyInChIKey=IUJDSEJGGMCXSG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thiobarbituric acid derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a 2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentThiobarbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Thiobarbiturate
  • 1,3-diazinane
  • Thiourea
  • Thiocarbonic acid derivative
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anesthetics, Intravenous
  • Anticonvulsants
  • GABA Modulators
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.98e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP2.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.04 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.05ALOGPS
logP2.78ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.2 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity65.99 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability25.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0596-9600000000-1b2c7562818b87a3dce1View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00599
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00599
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00599
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2272258
KEGG Compound IDC07521
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkThiopental
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14737
Metagene LinkHMDB14737
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3000715
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID102166
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Bory C, Chantin C, Boulieu R, Cotte J, Berthier JC, Fraisse D, Bobenrieth MJ: [Use of thiopental in man. Determination of this drug and its metabolites in plasma and urine by liquid phase chromatography and mass spectrometry]. C R Acad Sci III. 1986;303(1):7-12. [3093002 ]
  2. Morgan DJ, Blackman GL, Paull JD, Wolf LJ: Pharmacokinetics and plasma binding of thiopental. II: Studies at cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 1981 Jun;54(6):474-80. [7235275 ]
  3. WINTERS WD, SPECTOR E, WALLACH DP, SHIDEMAN FE: Metabolism of thiopental-S35 and thiopental-2-C14 by a rat liver mince and identification of pentobarbital as a major metabolite. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1955 Jul;114(3):343-57. [13243246 ]
  4. Perez-Barcena J, Barcelo B, Homar J, Abadal JM, Molina FJ, de la Pena A, Sahuquillo J, Ibanez J: [Comparison of the effectiveness of pentobarbital and thiopental in patients with refractory intracranial hypertension. Preliminary report of 20 patients]. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2005 Feb;16(1):5-12; discussion 12-3. [15756405 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L- glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. May be involved in the transmission of light information from the retina to the hypothalamus. Modulates cell surface expression of NETO2
Gene Name:
GRIK2
Uniprot ID:
Q13002
Molecular weight:
102582.5
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [10487207 ]
General function:
Involved in carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor
Specific function:
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of these molecules. Hydrolyzes polyunsaturated substrate anandamide preferentially as compared to monounsaturated substrates.
Gene Name:
FAAH
Uniprot ID:
O00519
Molecular weight:
63065.28
References
  1. Patel S, Wohlfeil ER, Rademacher DJ, Carrier EJ, Perry LJ, Kundu A, Falck JR, Nithipatikom K, Campbell WB, Hillard CJ: The general anesthetic propofol increases brain N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) content and inhibits fatty acid amide hydrolase. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;139(5):1005-13. [12839875 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L- glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist
Gene Name:
GRIA2
Uniprot ID:
P42262
Molecular weight:
98820.3
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [10487207 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular weight:
51801.4
References
  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. [14579514 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
  3. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  4. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [10487207 ]
  5. Grasshoff C, Netzhammer N, Schweizer J, Antkowiak B, Hentschke H: Depression of spinal network activity by thiopental: shift from phasic to tonic GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition. Neuropharmacology. 2008 Oct;55(5):793-802. Epub 2008 Jun 21. [18619475 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular weight:
51325.9
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular weight:
55164.1
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular weight:
61622.6
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular weight:
52145.6
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular weight:
51023.7
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]