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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:30:05 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14794
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTrazodone
DescriptionA serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-(3-[4-(3-Chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]propyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridin-3(2H)-oneChEBI
TrazodonaChEBI
TrazodonumChEBI
Chemical FormulaC19H22ClN5O
Average Molecular Weight371.864
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight371.151288058
IUPAC Name2-{3-[4-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]propyl}-2H,3H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridin-3-one
Traditional Nametrazodone
CAS Registry Number19794-93-5
SMILES
ClC1=CC=CC(=C1)N1CCN(CCCN2N=C3C=CC=CN3C2=O)CC1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C19H22ClN5O/c20-16-5-3-6-17(15-16)23-13-11-22(12-14-23)8-4-10-25-19(26)24-9-2-1-7-18(24)21-25/h1-3,5-7,9,15H,4,8,10-14H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=PHLBKPHSAVXXEF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpiperazines. These are compounds containing a phenylpiperazine skeleton, which consists of a piperazine bound to a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazinanes
Sub ClassPiperazines
Direct ParentPhenylpiperazines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-arylpiperazine
  • Phenylpiperazine
  • Triazolopyridine
  • Substituted aniline
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • N-alkylpiperazine
  • Pyridinone
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Aniline
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • 1,2,4-triazole
  • Triazole
  • Azole
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anti-anxiety Agents
  • Antidepressants, Second-Generation
  • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point86 - 87 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility2.90e-01 g/LNot Available
LogP2.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.29 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.68ALOGPS
logP3.13ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area42.39 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity105.88 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability40.12 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-7980000000-5d2bde624fdd9a946993View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00656
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00656
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00656
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5332
KEGG Compound IDC07156
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTrazodone
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14794
Metagene LinkHMDB14794
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5533
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID9654
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Rotzinger S, Fang J, Baker GB: Trazodone is metabolized to m-chlorophenylpiperazine by CYP3A4 from human sources. Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Jun;26(6):572-5. [9616194 ]
  2. Kalgutkar AS, Henne KR, Lame ME, Vaz AD, Collin C, Soglia JR, Zhao SX, Hop CE: Metabolic activation of the nontricyclic antidepressant trazodone to electrophilic quinone-imine and epoxide intermediates in human liver microsomes and recombinant P4503A4. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Jun 30;155(1-2):10-20. Epub 2005 Apr 18. [15978881 ]
  3. Marek GJ, McDougle CJ, Price LH, Seiden LS: A comparison of trazodone and fluoxetine: implications for a serotonergic mechanism of antidepressant action. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992;109(1-2):2-11. [1365657 ]
  4. Jauch R, Kopitar Z, Prox A, Zimmer A: [Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of trazodone in man (author's transl)]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(11):2084-9. [1037253 ]
  5. Otani K, Yasui N, Kaneko S, Ishida M, Ohkubo T, Osanai T, Sugawara K, Fukushima Y: Trazodone treatment increases plasma prolactin concentrations in depressed patients. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995 Jun;10(2):115-7. [7673654 ]
  6. Saletu-Zyhlarz GM, Abu-Bakr MH, Anderer P, Gruber G, Mandl M, Strobl R, Gollner D, Prause W, Saletu B: Insomnia in depression: differences in objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality to normal controls and acute effects of trazodone. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;26(2):249-60. [11817501 ]
  7. Fink HA, MacDonald R, Rutks IR, Wilt TJ: Trazodone for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJU Int. 2003 Sep;92(4):441-6. [12930437 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Rotzinger S, Fang J, Baker GB: Trazodone is metabolized to m-chlorophenylpiperazine by CYP3A4 from human sources. Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Jun;26(6):572-5. [9616194 ]
  2. Kalgutkar AS, Henne KR, Lame ME, Vaz AD, Collin C, Soglia JR, Zhao SX, Hop CE: Metabolic activation of the nontricyclic antidepressant trazodone to electrophilic quinone-imine and epoxide intermediates in human liver microsomes and recombinant P4503A4. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Jun 30;155(1-2):10-20. Epub 2005 Apr 18. [15978881 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Wen B, Ma L, Rodrigues AD, Zhu M: Detection of novel reactive metabolites of trazodone: evidence for CYP2D6-mediated bioactivation of m-chlorophenylpiperazine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 May;36(5):841-50. Epub 2008 Jan 31. [18238857 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular weight:
48956.3
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular weight:
46106.3
References
  1. Odagaki Y, Toyoshima R, Yamauchi T: Trazodone and its active metabolite m-chlorophenylpiperazine as partial agonists at 5-HT1A receptors assessed by [35S]GTPgammaS binding. J Psychopharmacol. 2005 May;19(3):235-41. [15888508 ]
  2. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
  3. Subhash MN, Srinivas BN, Vinod KY: Alterations in 5-HT(1A) receptors and adenylyl cyclase response by trazodone in regions of rat brain. Life Sci. 2002 Aug 16;71(13):1559-67. [12127910 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular weight:
52602.6
References
  1. Pazzagli M, Giovannini MG, Pepeu G: Trazodone increases extracellular serotonin levels in the frontal cortex of rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Nov 3;383(3):249-57. [10594316 ]
  2. Marcoli M, Rosu C, Bonfanti A, Raiteri M, Maura G: Inhibitory presynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptors regulate evoked glutamate release from rat cerebellar mossy fibers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Dec;299(3):1106-11. [11714900 ]
  3. Marek GJ, McDougle CJ, Price LH, Seiden LS: A comparison of trazodone and fluoxetine: implications for a serotonergic mechanism of antidepressant action. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992;109(1-2):2-11. [1365657 ]
  4. Luparini MR, Garrone B, Pazzagli M, Pinza M, Pepeu G: A cortical GABA-5HT interaction in the mechanism of action of the antidepressant trazodone. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Nov;28(7):1117-27. [15610924 ]
  5. Conn PJ, Sanders-Bush E: Relative efficacies of piperazines at the phosphoinositide hydrolysis-linked serotonergic (5-HT-2 and 5-HT-1c) receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Aug;242(2):552-7. [3039120 ]
  6. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular weight:
51820.7
References
  1. Fiorella D, Rabin RA, Winter JC: The role of the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the stimulus effects of m-chlorophenylpiperazine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995 May;119(2):222-30. [7659770 ]
  2. Conn PJ, Sanders-Bush E: Relative efficacies of piperazines at the phosphoinositide hydrolysis-linked serotonergic (5-HT-2 and 5-HT-1c) receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Aug;242(2):552-7. [3039120 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular weight:
55783.6
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
  3. Noguchi S, Inukai T, Kuno T, Tanaka C: The suppression of olfactory bulbectomy-induced muricide by antidepressants and antihistamines via histamine H1 receptor blocking. Physiol Behav. 1992 Jun;51(6):1123-7. [1353628 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular weight:
51486.0
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [7855217 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Stormer E, von Moltke LL, Perloff MD, Greenblatt DJ: P-glycoprotein interactions of nefazodone and trazodone in cell culture. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Jul;41(7):708-14. [11452702 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular weight:
70324.165
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]