You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:30:08 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14805
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHistamine Phosphate
DescriptionHistamine Phosphate is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It stimulates gastric gland secretion, causing an increased secretion of gastric juice of high acidity. This action is probably due mainly to a direct action on parietal and chief gland cells.Histamine acts directly on the blood vessels to dilate arteries and capillaries; this action is mediated by both H 1- and H 2-receptors. Capillary dilatation may produce flushing of the face, a decrease in systemic blood pressure, and gastric gland secretion, causing an increased secretion of gastric juice of high acidity. Increased capillary permeability accompanies capillary dilatation, producing an outward passage of plasma protein and fluid into the extracellular spaces, an increase in lymph flow and protein content, and the formation of edema. In addition, histamine has a direct stimulant action on smooth muscle, producing contraction if H 1-receptors are activated, or mostly relaxation if H 2-receptors are activated. Also in humans, the stimulant effect of histamine may cause contraction of the intestinal muscle. However, little effect is noticed on the uterus, bladder, or gallbladder. Histamine has some stimulant effect on duodenal, salivary, pancreatic, bronchial, and lacrimal glands. Histamine also can bind to H3 and H4 receptors which are involved in the CNS/PNS neurotransmitter release and immune system chemotaxis, respectively.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-(2-Aminoethyl)imidazole bis(dihydrogen phosphate)ChEBI
4-(2-Aminoethyl)imidazole di-acid phosphateChEBI
Histamine acid phosphateChEBI
Histamine biphosphateChEBI
Histamine dihydrogen phosphateChEBI
Histamine diphosphateChEBI
Histamine phosphate (1:2)ChEBI
4-(2-Aminoethyl)imidazole bis(dihydrogen phosphoric acid)Generator
Histamine phosphoric acidGenerator
4-(2-Aminoethyl)imidazole di-acid phosphoric acidGenerator
Histamine acid phosphoric acidGenerator
Histamine biphosphoric acidGenerator
Histamine dihydrogen phosphoric acidGenerator
Histamine diphosphoric acidGenerator
Histamine phosphoric acid (1:2)Generator
Chemical FormulaC5H15N3O8P2
Average Molecular Weight307.1354
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight307.033437495
IUPAC Name2-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)ethan-1-amine; bis(phosphoric acid)
Traditional Name1H-imidazole-5-ethanamine; bis(phosphoric acid)
CAS Registry Number51-74-1
SMILES
OP(O)(O)=O.OP(O)(O)=O.NCCC1=CN=CN1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9N3.2H3O4P/c6-2-1-5-3-7-4-8-5;2*1-5(2,3)4/h3-4H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8);2*(H3,1,2,3,4)
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZHIBQGJKHVBLJJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aralkylamines. These are alkylamines in which the alkyl group is substituted at one carbon atom by an aromatic hydrocarbyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassAmines
Sub ClassAralkylamines
Direct ParentAralkylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Aralkylamine
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Organic phosphate
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Diagnostic aid
  • Histamine Agents
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point139 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-3.541Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.79ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.7 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity32.23 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.98 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00667
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00667
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00667
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID58959
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14805
Metagene LinkHMDB14805
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound65513
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID51193
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in histamine N-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Inactivates histamine by N-methylation. Plays an important role in degrading histamine and in regulating the airway response to histamine.
Gene Name:
HNMT
Uniprot ID:
P50135
Molecular weight:
6045.9
References
  1. Garcia-Martin E, Ayuso P, Martinez C, Blanca M, Agundez JA: Histamine pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2009 May;10(5):867-83. [19450133 ]
  2. Okinaga S, Ohrui T, Nakazawa H, Yamauchi K, Sakurai E, Watanabe T, Sekizawa K, Sasaki H: The role of HMT (histamine N-methyltransferase) in airways: a review. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Nov;17 Suppl C:16-20. [8750789 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The H2 subclass of histamine receptors mediates gastric acid secretion. Also appears to regulate gastrointestinal motility and intestinal secretion. Possible role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase and, through a separate G protein-dependent mechanism, the phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway
Gene Name:
HRH2
Uniprot ID:
P25021
Molecular weight:
40097.7
References
  1. Francis H, Franchitto A, Ueno Y, Glaser S, DeMorrow S, Venter J, Gaudio E, Alvaro D, Fava G, Marzioni M, Vaculin B, Alpini G: H3 histamine receptor agonist inhibits biliary growth of BDL rats by downregulation of the cAMP-dependent PKA/ERK1/2/ELK-1 pathway. Lab Invest. 2007 May;87(5):473-87. Epub 2007 Mar 5. [17334413 ]
  2. Soga F, Katoh N, Kishimoto S: Histamine prevents apoptosis in human monocytes. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007 Mar;37(3):323-30. [17359382 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The H3 subclass of histamine receptors could mediate the histamine signals in CNS and peripheral nervous system. Signals through the inhibition of adenylate cyclase and displays high constitutive activity (spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist). Agonist stimulation of isoform 3 niether modified adenylate cyclase activity nor induced intracellular calcium mobilization
Gene Name:
HRH3
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5N1
Molecular weight:
48670.8
References
  1. Petroianu G, Arafat K, Sasse BC, Stark H: Multiple enzyme inhibitions by histamine H3 receptor antagonists as potential procognitive agents. Pharmazie. 2006 Mar;61(3):179-82. [16599255 ]
  2. Garduno-Torres B, Arias-Montano JA: Homologous down-regulation of histamine H3 receptors in rat striatal slices. Synapse. 2006 Aug;60(2):165-71. [16715497 ]
  3. Minick DJ, Copley RC, Szewczyk JR, Rutkowske RD, Miller LA: An investigation of the absolute configuration of the potent histamine H3 receptor antagonist GT-2331 using vibrational circular dichroism. Chirality. 2007 Sep;19(9):731-40. [17575572 ]
  4. Arrang JM: [The histamine H3 receptor: a new target for the treatment of arousal and cognitive disorders]. Ann Pharm Fr. 2007 Jul;65(4):275-84. [17652997 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular weight:
55783.6
References
  1. Miyoshi K, Das AK, Fujimoto K, Horio S, Fukui H: Recent advances in molecular pharmacology of the histamine systems: regulation of histamine H1 receptor signaling by changing its expression level. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006 May;101(1):3-6. Epub 2006 Apr 28. [16648669 ]
  2. Han SK, Mancino V, Simon MI: Phospholipase cbeta 3 mediates the scratching response activated by the histamine h1 receptor on C-fiber nociceptive neurons. Neuron. 2006 Nov 22;52(4):691-703. [17114052 ]
  3. Spahr L, Coeytaux A, Giostra E, Hadengue A, Annoni JM: Histamine H1 blocker hydroxyzine improves sleep in patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 Apr;102(4):744-53. Epub 2007 Jan 11. [17222324 ]
  4. Suzuki K, Morokata T, Morihira K, Sato I, Takizawa S, Kaneko M, Takahashi K, Shimizu Y: A dual antagonist for chemokine CCR3 receptor and histamine H1 receptor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 1;563(1-3):224-32. Epub 2007 Feb 8. [17336292 ]
  5. Tanimoto A, Wang KY, Murata Y, Kimura S, Nomaguchi M, Nakata S, Tsutsui M, Sasaguri Y: Histamine upregulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human intimal smooth muscle cells via histamine H1 receptor and NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Jul;27(7):1556-61. Epub 2007 May 3. [17478759 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The H4 subclass of histamine receptors could mediate the histamine signals in peripheral tissues. Displays a significant level of constitutive activity (spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist)
Gene Name:
HRH4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H3N8
Molecular weight:
44495.4
References
  1. Blaya B, Nicolau-Galmes F, Jangi SM, Ortega-Martinez I, Alonso-Tejerina E, Burgos-Bretones J, Perez-Yarza G, Asumendi A, Boyano MD: Histamine and histamine receptor antagonists in cancer biology. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2010 Jul;9(3):146-57. [20632959 ]
  2. Yu B, Shao Y, Li P, Zhang J, Zhong Q, Yang H, Hu X, Chen B, Peng X, Wu Q, Chen Y, Guan M, Wan J, Zhang W: Copy number variations of the human histamine H4 receptor gene are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Nov;163(5):935-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09928.x. [20618322 ]
  3. Cowden JM, Riley JP, Ma JY, Thurmond RL, Dunford PJ: Histamine H4 receptor antagonism diminishes existing airway inflammation and dysfunction via modulation of Th2 cytokines. Respir Res. 2010 Jun 24;11:86. [20573261 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular weight:
62751.1
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [11160873 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)- N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin- dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular weight:
61187.4
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [12606755 ]
  2. Grundemann D, Liebich G, Kiefer N, Koster S, Schomig E: Selective substrates for non-neuronal monoamine transporters. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;56(1):1-10. [10385678 ]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [11758759 ]
  4. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Monoamine neurotransmitter transport mediated by the polyspecific cation transporter rOCT1. FEBS Lett. 1996 Oct 21;395(2-3):153-6. [8898084 ]
  5. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [11502595 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin may develop a nephrotoxic action. Transport of creatinine is inhibited by fluoroquinolones such as DX-619 and LVFX. This transporter is a major determinant of the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin and may contribute to antitumor specificity
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular weight:
62564.0
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [12089365 ]
  2. Grundemann D, Liebich G, Kiefer N, Koster S, Schomig E: Selective substrates for non-neuronal monoamine transporters. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;56(1):1-10. [10385678 ]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [11758759 ]
  4. Busch AE, Karbach U, Miska D, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Volk C, Arndt P, Ulzheimer JC, Sonders MS, Baumann C, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Human neurons express the polyspecific cation transporter hOCT2, which translocates monoamine neurotransmitters, amantadine, and memantine. Mol Pharmacol. 1998 Aug;54(2):342-52. [9687576 ]
  5. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [11502595 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain
Gene Name:
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID:
O75751
Molecular weight:
61279.5
References
  1. Grundemann D, Liebich G, Kiefer N, Koster S, Schomig E: Selective substrates for non-neuronal monoamine transporters. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;56(1):1-10. [10385678 ]