You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:30:09 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14811
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAprepitant
DescriptionAprepitant, an antiemetic, is a substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist which, in combination with other antiemetic agents, is indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy. Aprepitant is a selective high-affinity antagonist of human substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors. Aprepitant has little or no affinity for serotonin (5-HT3), dopamine, and corticosteroid receptors, the targets of existing therapies for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CI NV).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-(((2R,3S)-3-(P-Fluorophenyl)-2-(((alphar)-alpha-methyl-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)oxy)morpholino)methyl)-Delta(2)-1,2,4-triazolin-5-oneChEBI
AprepitantumChEBI
3-(((2R,3S)-3-(P-Fluorophenyl)-2-(((alphar)-a-methyl-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)oxy)morpholino)methyl)-delta(2)-1,2,4-triazolin-5-oneGenerator
3-(((2R,3S)-3-(P-Fluorophenyl)-2-(((alphar)-α-methyl-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)oxy)morpholino)methyl)-δ(2)-1,2,4-triazolin-5-oneGenerator
3-(((2R,3S)-3-(P-Fluorophenyl)-2-(((alphar)-a-methyl-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)oxy)morpholino)methyl)-δ(2)-1,2,4-triazolin-5-oneGenerator
MK-0517HMDB
MK-869HMDB
Chemical FormulaC23H21F7N4O3
Average Molecular Weight534.4267
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight534.150187993
IUPAC Name3-{[(2R,3S)-2-[(1R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethoxy]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)morpholin-4-yl]methyl}-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-one
Traditional Nameaprepitant
CAS Registry Number170729-80-3
SMILES
C[C@@H](O[C@H]1OCCN(CC2=NNC(=O)N2)[C@H]1C1=CC=C(F)C=C1)C1=CC(=CC(=C1)C(F)(F)F)C(F)(F)F
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C23H21F7N4O3/c1-12(14-8-15(22(25,26)27)10-16(9-14)23(28,29)30)37-20-19(13-2-4-17(24)5-3-13)34(6-7-36-20)11-18-31-21(35)33-32-18/h2-5,8-10,12,19-20H,6-7,11H2,1H3,(H2,31,32,33,35)/t12-,19+,20-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=ATALOFNDEOCMKK-OITMNORJSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylmorpholines. These are aromatic compounds containing a morpholine ring and a benzene ring linked to each other through a CC or a CN bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassOxazinanes
Sub ClassMorpholines
Direct ParentPhenylmorpholines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylmorpholine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Halobenzene
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • 1,2,4-triazole
  • Azole
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antiemetics
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.94e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP4.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.019 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.44ALOGPS
logP5.22ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.51ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity116.93 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability45.56 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00673
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00673
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00673
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5293568
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAprepitant
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14811
Metagene LinkHMDB14811
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound6918365
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID499361
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
  2. Sanchez RI, Wang RW, Newton DJ, Bakhtiar R, Lu P, Chiu SH, Evans DC, Huskey SE: Cytochrome P450 3A4 is the major enzyme involved in the metabolism of the substance P receptor antagonist aprepitant. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Nov;32(11):1287-92. Epub 2004 Aug 10. [15304427 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Sanchez RI, Wang RW, Newton DJ, Bakhtiar R, Lu P, Chiu SH, Evans DC, Huskey SE: Cytochrome P450 3A4 is the major enzyme involved in the metabolism of the substance P receptor antagonist aprepitant. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Nov;32(11):1287-92. Epub 2004 Aug 10. [15304427 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Sanchez RI, Wang RW, Newton DJ, Bakhtiar R, Lu P, Chiu SH, Evans DC, Huskey SE: Cytochrome P450 3A4 is the major enzyme involved in the metabolism of the substance P receptor antagonist aprepitant. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Nov;32(11):1287-92. Epub 2004 Aug 10. [15304427 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is a receptor for the tachykinin neuropeptide substance P. It is probably associated with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The rank order of affinity of this receptor to tachykinins is:substance P > substance K > neuromedin-K
Gene Name:
TACR1
Uniprot ID:
P25103
Molecular weight:
46250.5
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Brands KM, Payack JF, Rosen JD, Nelson TD, Candelario A, Huffman MA, Zhao MM, Li J, Craig B, Song ZJ, Tschaen DM, Hansen K, Devine PN, Pye PJ, Rossen K, Dormer PG, Reamer RA, Welch CJ, Mathre DJ, Tsou NN, McNamara JM, Reider PJ: Efficient synthesis of NK(1) receptor antagonist aprepitant using a crystallization-induced diastereoselective transformation. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Feb 26;125(8):2129-35. [12590540 ]
  3. Rodgers J, Bradley B, Kennedy PG: Combination chemotherapy with a substance P receptor antagonist (aprepitant) and melarsoprol in a mouse model of human African trypanosomiasis. Parasitol Int. 2007 Dec;56(4):321-4. Epub 2007 Jun 29. [17643344 ]
  4. Poli-Bigelli S, Rodrigues-Pereira J, Carides AD, Julie Ma G, Eldridge K, Hipple A, Evans JK, Horgan KJ, Lawson F: Addition of the neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist aprepitant to standard antiemetic therapy improves control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Latin America. Cancer. 2003 Jun 15;97(12):3090-8. [12784346 ]
  5. Zhao MM, McNamara JM, Ho GJ, Emerson KM, Song ZJ, Tschaen DM, Brands KM, Dolling UH, Grabowski EJ, Reider PJ, Cottrell IF, Ashwood MS, Bishop BC: Practical asymmetric synthesis of aprepitant, a potent human NK-1 receptor antagonist, via a stereoselective Lewis acid-catalyzed trans acetalization reaction. J Org Chem. 2002 Sep 20;67(19):6743-7. [12227806 ]
  6. Bergstrom M, Hargreaves RJ, Burns HD, Goldberg MR, Sciberras D, Reines SA, Petty KJ, Ogren M, Antoni G, Langstrom B, Eskola O, Scheinin M, Solin O, Majumdar AK, Constanzer ML, Battisti WP, Bradstreet TE, Gargano C, Hietala J: Human positron emission tomography studies of brain neurokinin 1 receptor occupancy by aprepitant. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 May 15;55(10):1007-12. [15121485 ]