You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2017-03-02 21:33:30 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14853
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameParoxetine
DescriptionParoxetine hydrochloride and paroxetine mesylate belong to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache (see Toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects). Side effects generally occur during the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Paroxetine hydrochloride and mesylate are considered therapeutic alternatives rather than generic equivalents by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); both agents contain the same active moiety (i.e. paroxetine), but are formulated as different salt forms. Clinical studies establishing the efficacy of paroxetine in various conditions were performed using paroxetine hydrochloride. Since both agents contain the same active moiety, the clinical efficacy of both agents is thought to be similar. Paroxetine may be used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety disorder (social phobia), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Paroxetine has the most evidence supporting its use for anxiety-related disorders of the SSRIs. It has the greatest anticholinergic activity of the agents in this class and compared to other SSRIs, paroxetine may cause greater weight gain, sexual dysfunction, sedation and constipation.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-(3S,4R)-4-(P-Fluorophenyl)-3-((3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenoxy)methyl)piperidineChEBI
(3S-trans)-3-((1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yloxy)methyl)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperidineChEBI
ParoxetinaChEBI
ParoxetinumChEBI
Hydrochloride hemihydrate, paroxetineMeSH
Hydrochloride, hemihydrate paroxetineMeSH
Acetate, paroxetineMeSH
Maleate, paroxetineMeSH
Paroxetine acetateMeSH
Paroxetine hydrochloride hemihydrateMeSH
Paroxetine, trans-(+)-isomerMeSH
SeroxatMeSH
AropaxMeSH
Hemihydrate paroxetine hydrochlorideMeSH
Paroxetine hydrochloride anhydrousMeSH
Paroxetine, cis-(+)-isomerMeSH
PaxilMeSH
Anhydrous, paroxetine hydrochlorideMeSH
Hemihydrate, paroxetine hydrochlorideMeSH
Hydrochloride anhydrous, paroxetineMeSH
Hydrochloride, paroxetineMeSH
Paroxetine hydrochlorideMeSH
Paroxetine hydrochloride, hemihydrateMeSH
Paroxetine maleateMeSH
Paroxetine, cis-(-)-isomerMeSH
Chemical FormulaC19H20FNO3
Average Molecular Weight329.3654
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight329.142721716
IUPAC Name(3S,4R)-3-[(2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy)methyl]-4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperidine
Traditional Nameparoxetine
CAS Registry Number61869-08-7
SMILES
FC1=CC=C(C=C1)[C@@H]1CCNC[C@H]1COC1=CC2=C(OCO2)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C19H20FNO3/c20-15-3-1-13(2-4-15)17-7-8-21-10-14(17)11-22-16-5-6-18-19(9-16)24-12-23-18/h1-6,9,14,17,21H,7-8,10-12H2/t14-,17-/m0/s1
InChI KeyAHOUBRCZNHFOSL-YOEHRIQHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpiperidines. These are compounds containing a phenylpiperidine skeleton, which consists of a piperidine bound to a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPiperidines
Sub ClassPhenylpiperidines
Direct ParentPhenylpiperidines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpiperidine
  • Benzodioxole
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Halobenzene
  • Aralkylamine
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Aryl halide
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Acetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antidepressants
  • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point129 - 131 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility8.53e-03 g/LNot Available
LogP3.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0085 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.1ALOGPS
logP3.15ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.77ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area39.72 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity88.02 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.48 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-001i-3709000000-7d029049c2e6d638ecbeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-001i-2409000000-077fb077fbf0e4210f51View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-8900000000-0a273deac3c7836cdc76View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00715
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00715
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00715
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID39888
KEGG Compound IDC07415
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkParoxetine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14853
Metagene LinkHMDB14853
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound43815
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID7936
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Baldwin DS, Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, Bandelow B, Bond A, Davidson JR, den Boer JA, Fineberg NA, Knapp M, Scott J, Wittchen HU: Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2005 Nov;19(6):567-96. [PubMed:16272179 ]
  2. Yonkers KA, Gullion C, Williams A, Novak K, Rush AJ: Paroxetine as a treatment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1996 Feb;16(1):3-8. [PubMed:8834412 ]
  3. Waldinger MD, Hengeveld MW, Zwinderman AH, Olivier B: Effect of SSRI antidepressants on ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998 Aug;18(4):274-81. [PubMed:9690692 ]
  4. Baldwin D, Bobes J, Stein DJ, Scharwachter I, Faure M: Paroxetine in social phobia/social anxiety disorder. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Paroxetine Study Group. Br J Psychiatry. 1999 Aug;175:120-6. [PubMed:10627793 ]
  5. Waldinger MD, Zwinderman AH, Olivier B: SSRIs and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, fixed-dose study with paroxetine and citalopram. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001 Dec;21(6):556-60. [PubMed:11763001 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Urichuk L, Prior TI, Dursun S, Baker G: Metabolism of atypical antipsychotics: involvement of cytochrome p450 enzymes and relevance for drug-drug interactions. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Jun;9(5):410-8. [PubMed:18537577 ]
  2. Baumann P: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996 Dec;31(6):444-69. [PubMed:8968657 ]
  3. Ozdemir V, Naranjo CA, Herrmann N, Reed K, Sellers EM, Kalow W: Paroxetine potentiates the central nervous system side effects of perphenazine: contribution of cytochrome P4502D6 inhibition in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Sep;62(3):334-47. [PubMed:9333110 ]
  4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular weight:
52602.6
References
  1. Bixo M, Allard P, Backstrom T, Mjorndal T, Nyberg S, Spigset O, Sundstrom-Poromaa I: Binding of [3H]paroxetine to serotonin uptake sites and of [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide to 5-HT2A receptors in platelets from women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder during gonadotropin releasing hormone treatment. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2001 Aug;26(6):551-64. [PubMed:11403977 ]
  2. Meyer JH, Kapur S, Eisfeld B, Brown GM, Houle S, DaSilva J, Wilson AA, Rafi-Tari S, Mayberg HS, Kennedy SH: The effect of paroxetine on 5-HT(2A) receptors in depression: an [(18)F]setoperone PET imaging study. Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Jan;158(1):78-85. [PubMed:11136637 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular weight:
66127.4
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular weight:
51420.4
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular weight:
51714.6
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is inhibition of adenylate cyclase
Gene Name:
CHRM4
Uniprot ID:
P08173
Molecular weight:
53048.7
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM5
Uniprot ID:
P08912
Molecular weight:
60073.2
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Weiss J, Dormann SM, Martin-Facklam M, Kerpen CJ, Ketabi-Kiyanvash N, Haefeli WE: Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by newer antidepressants. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Apr;305(1):197-204. [PubMed:12649369 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular weight:
69331.42
References
  1. Rubin RT: Paroxetine binding to the rat norepinephrine transporter in vivo. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Nov 1;48(9):954-6. [PubMed:11203183 ]
  2. Gilmor ML, Owens MJ, Nemeroff CB: Inhibition of norepinephrine uptake in patients with major depression treated with paroxetine. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Oct;159(10):1702-10. [PubMed:12359676 ]
  3. Nemeroff CB, Owens MJ: Neuropharmacology of paroxetine. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2003 Spring;37 Suppl 1:8-18. [PubMed:14566196 ]
  4. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular weight:
70324.165
References
  1. Scholze P, Zwach J, Kattinger A, Pifl C, Singer EA, Sitte HH: Transporter-mediated release: a superfusion study on human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing the human serotonin transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Jun;293(3):870-8. [PubMed:10869387 ]
  2. Preuss UW, Soyka M, Bahlmann M, Wenzel K, Behrens S, de Jonge S, Kruger M, Bondy B: Serotonin transporter gene regulatory region polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), [3H]paroxetine binding in healthy control subjects and alcohol-dependent patients and their relationships to impulsivity. Psychiatry Res. 2000 Sep 25;96(1):51-61. [PubMed:10980326 ]
  3. Haughey HM, Fleckenstein AE, Metzger RR, Hanson GR: The effects of methamphetamine on serotonin transporter activity: role of dopamine and hyperthermia. J Neurochem. 2000 Oct;75(4):1608-17. [PubMed:10987842 ]
  4. Pollock BG, Ferrell RE, Mulsant BH, Mazumdar S, Miller M, Sweet RA, Davis S, Kirshner MA, Houck PR, Stack JA, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ: Allelic variation in the serotonin transporter promoter affects onset of paroxetine treatment response in late-life depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Nov;23(5):587-90. [PubMed:11027924 ]
  5. Wihlback AC, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Allard P, Mjorndal T, Spigset O, Backstrom T: Influence of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy on platelet serotonin uptake site and serotonin 2A receptor binding. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Sep;98(3):450-7. [PubMed:11530128 ]
  6. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [PubMed:9537821 ]