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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:30:55 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB14995
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTerbinafine
DescriptionTerbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil) is a synthetic allylamine antifungal. It is highly lipophilic in nature and tends to accumulate in skin, nails, and fatty tissues. Like other allylamines, terbinafine inhibits ergosterol synthesis by inhibiting the fungal squalene monooxygenase (squalene 2,3-epoxidase), an enzyme that is part of the fungal cell wall synthesis pathway.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(e)-N-(6,6-Dimethyl-2-hepten-4-ynyl)-N-methyl-1-naphthalene methanamineChEBI
(e)-N-(6,6-Dimethyl-2-hepten-4-ynyl)-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethylamineChEBI
TerbinafinaChEBI
TerbinafinumChEBI
Chemical FormulaC21H25N
Average Molecular Weight291.4299
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight291.198699805
IUPAC Name[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)amine
Traditional Nameterbinafine
CAS Registry Number91161-71-6
SMILES
CN(CC=CC#CC(C)(C)C)CC1=CC=CC2=CC=CC=C12
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H25N/c1-21(2,3)15-8-5-9-16-22(4)17-19-13-10-12-18-11-6-7-14-20(18)19/h5-7,9-14H,16-17H2,1-4H3/b9-5+
InChI KeyInChIKey=DOMXUEMWDBAQBQ-WEVVVXLNSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as naphthalenes. These are compounds containing a naphthalene moiety, which consists of two fused benzene rings.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassNaphthalenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentNaphthalenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Naphthalene
  • Benzylamine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Allylamines
  • Antifungal Agents
  • Antifungals
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Trypanocidal Agents
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point195 - 198 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility7.38e-04 g/LNot Available
LogP5.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000738 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.51ALOGPS
logP5.53ChemAxon
logS-5.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.94ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area3.24 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity98.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.83 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00857
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00857
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00857
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID1266005
KEGG Compound IDC08079
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTerbinafine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB14995
Metagene LinkHMDB14995
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound1549008
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID156831
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Darkes MJ, Scott LJ, Goa KL: Terbinafine: a review of its use in onychomycosis in adults. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2003;4(1):39-65. [12477372 ]
  2. Klobucnikova V, Kohut P, Leber R, Fuchsbichler S, Schweighofer N, Turnowsky F, Hapala I: Terbinafine resistance in a pleiotropic yeast mutant is caused by a single point mutation in the ERG1 gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Sep 26;309(3):666-71. [12963042 ]
  3. Ryder NS: Terbinafine: mode of action and properties of the squalene epoxidase inhibition. Br J Dermatol. 1992 Feb;126 Suppl 39:2-7. [1543672 ]
  4. Krishnan-Natesan S: Terbinafine: a pharmacological and clinical review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Nov;10(16):2723-33. [19874252 ]
  5. Birnbaum JE: Pharmacology of the allylamines. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990 Oct;23(4 Pt 2):782-5. [2229523 ]
  6. McClellan KJ, Wiseman LR, Markham A: Terbinafine. An update of its use in superficial mycoses. Drugs. 1999 Jul;58(1):179-202. [10439936 ]
  7. Korting HC, Kiencke P, Nelles S, Rychlik R: Comparable efficacy and safety of various topical formulations of terbinafine in tinea pedis irrespective of the treatment regimen: results of a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2007;8(6):357-64. [18039018 ]
  8. Gianni C: Update on antifungal therapy with terbinafine. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2010 Jun;145(3):415-24. [20461049 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first oxygenation step in sterol biosynthesis and is suggested to be one of the rate-limiting enzymes in this pathway.
Gene Name:
SQLE
Uniprot ID:
Q14534
Molecular weight:
63922.505
References
  1. Sander CS, Hipler UC, Wollina U, Elsner P: Inhibitory effect of terbinafine on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by Candida albicans. Mycoses. 2002 Jun;45(5-6):152-5. [12100530 ]
  2. Wentzinger LF, Bach TJ, Hartmann MA: Inhibition of squalene synthase and squalene epoxidase in tobacco cells triggers an up-regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase. Plant Physiol. 2002 Sep;130(1):334-46. [12226513 ]
  3. Darkes MJ, Scott LJ, Goa KL: Terbinafine: a review of its use in onychomycosis in adults. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2003;4(1):39-65. [12477372 ]
  4. Klobucnikova V, Kohut P, Leber R, Fuchsbichler S, Schweighofer N, Turnowsky F, Hapala I: Terbinafine resistance in a pleiotropic yeast mutant is caused by a single point mutation in the ERG1 gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Sep 26;309(3):666-71. [12963042 ]
  5. Leber R, Fuchsbichler S, Klobucnikova V, Schweighofer N, Pitters E, Wohlfarter K, Lederer M, Landl K, Ruckenstuhl C, Hapala I, Turnowsky F: Molecular mechanism of terbinafine resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Dec;47(12):3890-900. [14638499 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  7. Ryder NS: Terbinafine: mode of action and properties of the squalene epoxidase inhibition. Br J Dermatol. 1992 Feb;126 Suppl 39:2-7. [1543672 ]
  8. Krishnan-Natesan S: Terbinafine: a pharmacological and clinical review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Nov;10(16):2723-33. [19874252 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.
Gene Name:
CYP11A1
Uniprot ID:
P05108
Molecular weight:
60101.87
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
May play an important role in regulating or promoting cell proliferation in some normal and neoplastically transformed cells.
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular weight:
68685.82
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Abdel-Rahman SM, Marcucci K, Boge T, Gotschall RR, Kearns GL, Leeder JS: Potent inhibition of cytochrome P-450 2D6-mediated dextromethorphan O-demethylation by terbinafine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Jul;27(7):770-5. [10383919 ]
  2. Madani S, Barilla D, Cramer J, Wang Y, Paul C: Effect of terbinafine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of desipramine in healthy volunteers identified as cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) extensive metabolizers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Nov;42(11):1211-8. [12412819 ]
  3. Debruyne D, Coquerel A: Pharmacokinetics of antifungal agents in onychomycoses. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2001;40(6):441-72. [11475469 ]
  4. Abdel-Rahman SM, Gotschall RR, Kauffman RE, Leeder JS, Kearns GL: Investigation of terbinafine as a CYP2D6 inhibitor in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999 May;65(5):465-72. [10340911 ]
  5. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular weight:
57882.48
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]