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Record Information
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:30:57 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAlprenolol
DescriptionAlprenolol is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is one of the adrenergic beta-antagonists used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent. [PubChem]Alprenolol non-selectively blocks beta-1 adrenergic receptors mainly in the heart, inhibiting the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine resulting in a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. Also, with a more minor effect, by binding beta-2 receptors in the juxtaglomerular apparatus, alprenolol inhibits the production of renin, thereby inhibiting angiotensin II and aldosterone production and therefore inhibits the vasoconstriction and water retention due to angiotensin II and aldosterone, respectively.
Chemical FormulaC15H23NO2
Average Molecular Weight249.3486
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight249.172878985
IUPAC Name1-[2-(prop-2-en-1-yl)phenoxy]-3-[(propan-2-yl)amino]propan-2-ol
Traditional Name1-(isopropylamino)-3-[2-(prop-2-en-1-yl)phenoxy]propan-2-ol
CAS Registry Number13655-52-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpropenes. These are compounds containing a phenylpropene moiety, which consists of a propene substituent bound to a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylpropenes
Direct ParentPhenylpropenes
Alternative Parents
  • Phenylpropene
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary amine
  • Ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
StatusExpected but not Quantified
  • Drug
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Antiarrhythmic Agents
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Sympatholytics
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point107 - 109 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.88e-01 g/LNot Available
LogP2.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.19 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.67ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area41.49 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity74.66 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.38 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Alprenolol PathwaySMP00297Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00866
  • Not Applicable
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00866
  • Not Applicable
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00866
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2035
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15004
Metagene LinkHMDB15004
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound2119
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID51211
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available


General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
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  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity
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  1. Surman AJ, Doggrell SA: Alprenolol and bromoacetylalprenololmenthane are competitive slowly reversible antagonists at the beta 1-adrenoceptors of rat left atria. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1993 Jan;21(1):35-9. [7678677 ]
  2. De Ponti F, Cosentino M, Costa A, Girani M, Gibelli G, D'Angelo L, Frigo G, Crema A: Inhibitory effects of SR 58611A on canine colonic motility: evidence for a role of beta 3-adrenoceptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1995 Apr;114(7):1447-53. [7606348 ]
  3. Varma DR, Shen H, Deng XF, Peri KG, Chemtob S, Mulay S: Inverse agonist activities of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in rat myocardium. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Jun;127(4):895-902. [10433496 ]
  4. Brahmadevara N, Shaw AM, MacDonald A: Evidence against beta 3-adrenoceptors or low affinity state of beta 1-adrenoceptors mediating relaxation in rat isolated aorta. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;138(1):99-106. [12522078 ]
  5. Im MJ, Holzhofer A, Bottinger H, Pfeuffer T, Helmreich EJ: Interactions of pure beta gamma-subunits of G-proteins with purified beta 1-adrenoceptor. FEBS Lett. 1988 Jan 25;227(2):225-9. [2828119 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine
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  1. Brodde OE, Wang XL, O'Hara N, Daul A, Schiess W: Effect of propranolol, alprenolol, pindolol, and bopindolol on beta 2-adrenoceptor density in human lymphocytes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1986;8 Suppl 6:S70-3. [2439825 ]
  2. Brodde OE, Daul A, Stuka N, O'Hara N, Borchard U: Effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonist administration on beta 2-adrenoceptor density in human lymphocytes. The role of the "intrinsic sympathomimetic activity". Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1985 Feb;328(4):417-22. [2859531 ]
  3. Abrahamsson T: The beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulatory effects of alprenolol, oxprenolol and pindolol: a study in the isolated right atrium and uterus of the rat. Br J Pharmacol. 1986 Apr;87(4):657-64. [2871880 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity
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  1. Millan MJ, Rivet JM, Canton H, Lejeune F, Bervoets K, Brocco M, Gobert A, Lefebvre de Ladonchamps B, Le Marouille-Girardon S, Verriele L, et al.: S 14671: a naphtylpiperazine 5-hydroxytryptamine1A agonist of exceptional potency and high efficacy possessing antagonist activity at 5-hydroxytryptamine1C/2 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Aug;262(2):451-63. [1323650 ]
  2. Darmani NA: Role of the inhibitory adrenergic alpha 2 and serotonergic 5-HT1A components of cocaine's actions on the DOI-induced head-twitch response in 5-HT2-receptor supersensitive mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993 Jun;45(2):269-74. [8392199 ]
  3. Kuipers W, Link R, Standaar PJ, Stoit AR, Van Wijngaarden I, Leurs R, Ijzerman AP: Study of the interaction between aryloxypropanolamines and Asn386 in helix VII of the human 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 May;51(5):889-96. [9145928 ]
  4. Misane I, Johansson C, Ogren SO: Analysis of the 5-HT1A receptor involvement in passive avoidance in the rat. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;125(3):499-509. [9806333 ]