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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:31:01 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15018
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameChlorothiazide
DescriptionChlorothiazide is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of hydrochlorothiazide. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p812)As a diuretic, chlorothiazide inhibits active chloride reabsorption at the early distal tubule via the Na-Cl cotransporter, resulting in an increase in the excretion of sodium, chloride, and water. Thiazides like chlorothiazide also inhibit sodium ion transport across the renal tubular epithelium through binding to the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride transporter. This results in an increase in potassium excretion via the sodium-potassium exchange mechanism. The antihypertensive mechanism of chlorothiazide is less well understood although it may be mediated through its action on carbonic anhydrases in the smooth muscle or through its action on the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel, also found in the smooth muscle.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-1,2-dihydro-1Lambda*6*-benzo[1,2,4]thiadiazine-7-sulfonic acid amideChEBI
6-chloro-7-Sulfamoyl-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxideChEBI
ChlorothiazidumChEBI
ClorotiazidaChEBI
6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-1,2-dihydro-1Lambda*6*-benzo[1,2,4]thiadiazine-7-sulfonate amideGenerator
6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-1,2-dihydro-1Lambda*6*-benzo[1,2,4]thiadiazine-7-sulphonate amideGenerator
6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-1,2-dihydro-1Lambda*6*-benzo[1,2,4]thiadiazine-7-sulphonic acid amideGenerator
6-chloro-7-Sulphamoyl-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxideGenerator
ChlorothiazidHMDB
ChlorthiazideHMDB
ChlortiazidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H6ClN3O4S2
Average Molecular Weight295.723
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight294.948824782
IUPAC Name6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-4H-1λ⁶,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide
Traditional Namemicrozide
CAS Registry Number58-94-6
SMILES
NS(=O)(=O)C1=C(Cl)C=C2NC=NS(=O)(=O)C2=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H6ClN3O4S2/c8-4-1-5-7(2-6(4)16(9,12)13)17(14,15)11-3-10-5/h1-3H,(H,10,11)(H2,9,12,13)
InChI KeyInChIKey=JBMKAUGHUNFTOL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzothiadiazines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene fused to a thiadiazine ring (a six-member ring with two nitrogen atoms and a sulfur atom).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassThiadiazines
Sub ClassBenzothiadiazines
Direct ParentBenzothiadiazines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzothiadiazine
  • Benzenesulfonamide
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Azacycle
  • Amidine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Diuretics
  • Diuretics, Thiazide
  • Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point350 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.98e-01 g/LNot Available
LogP-0.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.4 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.41ALOGPS
logP-0.44ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.1ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.15ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area118.69 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity62.51 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.55 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Chlorothiazide PathwaySMP00078Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00880
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00880
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00880
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2619
KEGG Compound IDC07461
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkChlorothiazide
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15018
Metagene LinkHMDB15018
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound2720
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID3640
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular weight:
28870.0
References
  1. Puscas I, Coltau M, Baican M, Domuta G, Hecht A: Vasodilatory effect of diuretics is dependent on inhibition of vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase by a direct mechanism of action. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1999;25(6):271-9. [10713865 ]
  2. Puscas I, Coltau M, Baican M, Pasca R, Domuta G: The inhibitory effect of diuretics on carbonic anhydrases. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1999;105(3):213-36. [10954127 ]
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular weight:
29245.895
References
  1. Weiner ID, Verlander JW: Renal and hepatic expression of the ammonium transporter proteins, Rh B Glycoprotein and Rh C Glycoprotein. Acta Physiol Scand. 2003 Dec;179(4):331-8. [14656370 ]
  2. Puscas I, Coltau M, Baican M, Pasca R, Domuta G: The inhibitory effect of diuretics on carbonic anhydrases. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1999;105(3):213-36. [10954127 ]
  3. Verlander JW, Miller RT, Frank AE, Royaux IE, Kim YH, Weiner ID: Localization of the ammonium transporter proteins RhBG and RhCG in mouse kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Feb;284(2):F323-37. Epub 2002 Oct 8. [12388412 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption
Gene Name:
SLC12A3
Uniprot ID:
P55017
Molecular weight:
113124.0
References
  1. Thakker RV: Molecular pathology of renal chloride channels in Dent's disease and Bartter's syndrome. Exp Nephrol. 2000 Nov-Dec;8(6):351-60. [11014932 ]
  2. Schmidt H, Kabesch M, Schwarz HP, Kiess W: Clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic data in five children with Gitelman's syndrome. Horm Metab Res. 2001 Jun;33(6):354-7. [11456284 ]
  3. Wilson FH, Kahle KT, Sabath E, Lalioti MD, Rapson AK, Hoover RS, Hebert SC, Gamba G, Lifton RP: Molecular pathogenesis of inherited hypertension with hyperkalemia: the Na-Cl cotransporter is inhibited by wild-type but not mutant WNK4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jan 21;100(2):680-4. Epub 2003 Jan 6. [12515852 ]
  4. Maki N, Komatsuda A, Wakui H, Ohtani H, Kigawa A, Aiba N, Hamai K, Motegi M, Yamaguchi A, Imai H, Sawada K: Four novel mutations in the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl co-transporter gene in Japanese patients with Gitelman's syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004 Jul;19(7):1761-6. Epub 2004 Apr 6. [15069170 ]
  5. Reinalter SC, Jeck N, Peters M, Seyberth HW: Pharmacotyping of hypokalaemic salt-losing tubular disorders. Acta Physiol Scand. 2004 Aug;181(4):513-21. [15283765 ]
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular weight:
35032.075
References
  1. Puscas I, Coltau M, Baican M, Domuta G, Hecht A: Vasodilatory effect of diuretics is dependent on inhibition of vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase by a direct mechanism of action. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1999;25(6):271-9. [10713865 ]
  2. Puscas I, Coltau M, Baican M, Pasca R, Domuta G: The inhibitory effect of diuretics on carbonic anhydrases. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1999;105(3):213-36. [10954127 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8
References
  1. Uwai Y, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui KI: Interaction and transport of thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, and acetazolamide via rat renal organic anion transporter rOAT1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):261-5. [10991988 ]