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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:31:22 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15073
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSalmeterol
DescriptionSalmeterol is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist drug that is currently prescribed for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. Salmeterol's long, lipophilic side chain binds to exosites near beta(2)-receptors in the lungs and on bronchiolar smooth muscle, allowing the active portion of the molecule to remain at the receptor site, continually binding and releasing. Beta(2)-receptor stimulation in the lung causes relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, bronchodilation, and increased bronchial airflow.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
SereventChEMBL
Serevent diskusChEMBL
GR-33343XChEMBL
SalmaterolChEMBL
GR-33343-XChEMBL
Chemical FormulaC25H37NO4
Average Molecular Weight415.5656
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight415.272258677
IUPAC Name4-(1-hydroxy-2-{[6-(4-phenylbutoxy)hexyl]amino}ethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)phenol
Traditional Namesalmeterol
CAS Registry Number89365-50-4
SMILES
OCC1=C(O)C=CC(=C1)C(O)CNCCCCCCOCCCCC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C25H37NO4/c27-20-23-18-22(13-14-24(23)28)25(29)19-26-15-7-1-2-8-16-30-17-9-6-12-21-10-4-3-5-11-21/h3-5,10-11,13-14,18,25-29H,1-2,6-9,12,15-17,19-20H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=GIIZNNXWQWCKIB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzyl alcohols. These are organic compounds containing the phenylmethanol substructure.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzyl alcohols
Direct ParentBenzyl alcohols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzyl alcohol
  • Aralkylamine
  • Phenol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary amine
  • Ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Adrenergic beta-Agonists
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Sympathomimetic
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point75.5 - 76.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility2.26e-03 g/LNot Available
LogP4.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0023 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.82ALOGPS
logP3.61ChemAxon
logS-5.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.12ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area81.95 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count16ChemAxon
Refractivity122.39 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability50.6 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00938
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00938
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00938
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4968
KEGG Compound IDC07241
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSalmeterol
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15073
Metagene LinkHMDB15073
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5152
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID64064
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Salpeter SR, Buckley NS, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE: Meta-analysis: effect of long-acting beta-agonists on severe asthma exacerbations and asthma-related deaths. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jun 20;144(12):904-12. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [16754916 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. [15601807 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular weight:
46458.3
References
  1. Rong Y, Arbabian M, Thiriot DS, Seibold A, Clark RB, Ruoho AE: Probing the salmeterol binding site on the beta 2-adrenergic receptor using a novel photoaffinity ligand, [(125)I]iodoazidosalmeterol. Biochemistry. 1999 Aug 31;38(35):11278-86. [10471277 ]
  2. Finney PA, Donnelly LE, Belvisi MG, Chuang TT, Birrell M, Harris A, Mak JC, Scorer C, Barnes PJ, Adcock IM, Giembycz MA: Chronic systemic administration of salmeterol to rats promotes pulmonary beta(2)-adrenoceptor desensitization and down-regulation of G(s alpha). Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;132(6):1261-70. [11250877 ]
  3. Green SA, Rathz DA, Schuster AJ, Liggett SB: The Ile164 beta(2)-adrenoceptor polymorphism alters salmeterol exosite binding and conventional agonist coupling to G(s). Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Jun 15;421(3):141-7. [11516429 ]
  4. Meliton AY, Munoz NM, Liu J, Lambertino AT, Boetticher E, Myo S, Myou S, Zhu X, Johnson M, Leff AR: Blockade of LTC4 synthesis caused by additive inhibition of gIV-PLA2 phosphorylation: Effect of salmeterol and PDE4 inhibition in human eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Aug;112(2):404-10. [12897749 ]
  5. Brogden RN, Faulds D: Salmeterol xinafoate: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in reversible obstructive airways disease. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1992 Mar-Apr;20(2):72-84. [1359777 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]