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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:31:34 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15128
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAzathioprine
DescriptionAzathioprine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an immunosuppressive pro-drug. It is converted into 6-mercaptopurine in the body where it blocks purine metabolism and DNA synthesis.Azathioprine antagonizes purine metabolism and may inhibit synthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins. It may also interfere with cellular metabolism and inhibit mitosis. Its mechanism of action is likely due to incorporation of thiopurine analogues into the DNA structure, causing chain termination and cytotoxicity.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
6-((1-Methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazol-5-yl)thio)-1H-purineChEBI
6-(1'-Methyl-4'-nitro-5'-imidazolyl)-mercaptopurineChEBI
ImuranChEBI
AzathioprinHMDB
AzatioprinHMDB
AzothioprineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H7N7O2S
Average Molecular Weight277.263
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight277.038193193
IUPAC Name6-[(1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazol-5-yl)sulfanyl]-7H-purine
Traditional Nameazathioprine
CAS Registry Number446-86-6
SMILES
CN1C=NC(=C1SC1=NC=NC2=C1NC=N2)[N+]([O-])=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H7N7O2S/c1-15-4-14-7(16(17)18)9(15)19-8-5-6(11-2-10-5)12-3-13-8/h2-4H,1H3,(H,10,11,12,13)
InChI KeyInChIKey=LMEKQMALGUDUQG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diarylthioethers. These are organosulfur compounds containing a thioether group that is substituted by two aryl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganosulfur compounds
ClassThioethers
Sub ClassDiarylthioethers
Direct ParentDiarylthioethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Diarylthioether
  • 6-thiopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Nitroimidazole
  • Imidolactam
  • Pyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Organic nitro compound
  • Organic nitrite
  • C-nitro compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Organic oxoazanium
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antimetabolites
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • Antirheumatic Agents
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point243.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.07e+00 g/LNot Available
LogP0.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.07 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.84ALOGPS
logP1.17ChemAxon
logS-2.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area118.1 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity70.95 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.26 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Azathioprine Metabolism PathwaySMP00645Not Available
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00993
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00993
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00993
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2178
KEGG Compound IDC06837
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAzathioprine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15128
Metagene LinkHMDB15128
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound2265
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID2948
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Woodroffe R, Yao GL, Meads C, Bayliss S, Ready A, Raftery J, Taylor RS: Clinical and cost-effectiveness of newer immunosuppressive regimens in renal transplantation: a systematic review and modelling study. Health Technol Assess. 2005 May;9(21):1-179, iii-iv. [15899149 ]
  2. Gombar VK, Enslein K, Blake BW: Carcinogenicity of azathioprine: an S-AR investigation. Mutat Res. 1993 May;302(1):7-12. [7683109 ]
  3. Konstantopoulou M, Belgi A, Griffiths KD, Seale JR, Macfarlane AW: Azathioprine-induced pancytopenia in a patient with pompholyx and deficiency of erythrocyte thiopurine methyltransferase. BMJ. 2005 Feb 12;330(7487):350-1. [15705694 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
References
  1. Dubinsky MC: Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease: pharmacology, efficacy, and safety. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;2(9):731-43. [15354273 ]
General function:
Involved in thiopurine S-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine.
Gene Name:
TPMT
Uniprot ID:
P51580
Molecular weight:
28180.09
References
  1. Sahasranaman S, Howard D, Roy S: Clinical pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of thiopurines. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Aug;64(8):753-67. Epub 2008 May 28. [18506437 ]
General function:
Involved in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Converts guanine to guanosine monophosphate, and hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate. Transfers the 5-phosphoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate onto the purine. Plays a central role in the generation of purine nucleotides through the purine salvage pathway.
Gene Name:
HPRT1
Uniprot ID:
P00492
Molecular weight:
24579.155
References
  1. Anstey A, Lear JT: Azathioprine: clinical pharmacology and current indications in autoimmune disorders. BioDrugs. 1998 Jan;9(1):33-47. [18020555 ]
  2. Dubinsky MC: Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease: pharmacology, efficacy, and safety. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;2(9):731-43. [15354273 ]