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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:31:36 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15140
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHydroxyurea
DescriptionHydroxyurea is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase. [PubChem]Hydroxyurea is converted to a free radical nitroxide (NO) in vivo, and transported by diffusion into cells where it quenches the tyrosyl free radical at the active site of the M2 protein subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, inactivating the enzyme. The entire replicase complex, including ribonucleotide reductase, is inactivated and DNA synthesis is selectively inhibited, producing cell death in S phase and synchronization of the fraction of cells that survive. Repair of DNA damaged by chemicals or irradiation is also inhibited by hydroxyurea, offering potential synergy between hydroxyurea and radiation or alkylating agents. Hydroxyurea also increases the level of fetal hemoglobin, leading to a reduction in the incidence of vasoocclusive crises in sickle cell anemia. Levels of fetal hemoglobin increase in response to activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) by hydroxyurea-derived NO.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Carbamohydroxamic acidChEBI
Carbamohydroximic acidChEBI
Carbamoyl oximeChEBI
Carbamyl hydroxamateChEBI
HidroxicarbamidaChEBI
HydreaChEBI
HydroxycarbamidChEBI
HydroxycarbamidumChEBI
HydroxyharnstoffChEBI
N-CarbamoylhydroxylamineChEBI
N-HYDROXYUREAChEBI
OxyureaChEBI
CarbamohydroxamateGenerator
CarbamohydroximateGenerator
Carbamyl hydroxamic acidGenerator
Carbamohydroxyamic acidHMDB
HUHMDB
HydroxicarbamidumHMDB
HydroxycarbamineHMDB
HydroxylureaHMDB
IdrossicarbamideHMDB
Chemical FormulaCH4N2O2
Average Molecular Weight76.0547
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight76.027277382
IUPAC Namehydroxyurea
Traditional Namehydroxyurea
CAS Registry Number127-07-1
SMILES
NC(=O)NO
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CH4N2O2/c2-1(4)3-5/h5H,(H3,2,3,4)
InChI KeyInChIKey=VSNHCAURESNICA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organooxygen compounds. These are organic compounds containing a bond between a carbon atom and an oxygen atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentOrganooxygen compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antisickling Agents
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point142 - 146 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility2.69e+02 g/LNot Available
LogP-1.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility269.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-1.4ChemAxon
logS0.55ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.14ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.35 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity14.91 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.94 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0059-3950000000-0418fbb00ea645e9e0ceView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01005
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01005
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-13 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01005
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3530
KEGG Compound IDC07044
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHydroxyurea
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15140
Metagene LinkHMDB15140
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3657
PDB IDNHY
ChEBI ID5816
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidation reduction
Specific function:
Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides.
Gene Name:
RRM1
Uniprot ID:
P23921
Molecular weight:
90069.375
References
  1. Culligan K, Tissier A, Britt A: ATR regulates a G2-phase cell-cycle checkpoint in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2004 May;16(5):1091-104. Epub 2004 Apr 9. [15075397 ]
  2. Zhou B, Liu X, Mo X, Xue L, Darwish D, Qiu W, Shih J, Hwu EB, Luh F, Yen Y: The human ribonucleotide reductase subunit hRRM2 complements p53R2 in response to UV-induced DNA repair in cells with mutant p53. Cancer Res. 2003 Oct 15;63(20):6583-94. [14583450 ]
  3. Jiang W, Xie J, Varano PT, Krebs C, Bollinger JM Jr: Two distinct mechanisms of inactivation of the class Ic ribonucleotide reductase from Chlamydia trachomatis by hydroxyurea: implications for the protein gating of intersubunit electron transfer. Biochemistry. 2010 Jun 29;49(25):5340-9. [20462199 ]
  4. Davies BW, Kohanski MA, Simmons LA, Winkler JA, Collins JJ, Walker GC: Hydroxyurea induces hydroxyl radical-mediated cell death in Escherichia coli. Mol Cell. 2009 Dec 11;36(5):845-60. [20005847 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]